Vol 26, No 3 (2020)

EDITORIAL

Editorial

Editorial a.

Abstract

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Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):7-8
pages 7-8 views

CLINICAL STUDIES

Revision Hip Arthroplasty with Initially High Position of the Acetabular Component: What’s Special?

Tikhilov R.M., Dzhavadov A.A., Karpukhin A.S., Vahramyan A.G., Demyanova K.A., Shubnyakov I.I.

Abstract

Relevance. Total hip arthroplasty with a severe dysplasia refers to complex cases of joint replacement. One of the options for fixation of the acetabular component in this situation is to place the cup in the false acetabulum. Revisions in case of the acetabular component initial placement into the false acetabulum are highly complex. The purpose — to study the features of revision hip arthroplasty in the patients with dysplastic arthritis and loosening of the acetabular component initially placed in the false acetabulum. Materials and Methods. The clinical and functional results and complications were evaluated after 44 revisions performed by one surgical team from 2001 to 2019. How the position of vertical and horizontal centers of rotation of acetabular component after primary arthroplasty influenced the long-term survival of implants was analyzed. The degree of impact of the preoperative cranial displacement from the anatomical position of the femoral component center of rotation impact on surgical tactics was also investigated. Results. A combination of a highly porous cup with augment was used most frequently for acetabular component replacement (24 cases; 54.5%). Complications after the revision were detected in 6 (13.6%) patients. The values of the Oxford Hip Score, EQ-5D, VAS general health, and VAS pain depended on the postoperative position of the hip prosthesis center of rotation within 10 mm from the anatomical center. The odds ratio for the revision performed less than 10 years after the primary arthroplasty in the patients with a horizontal position of the center of rotation of 40 mm or more was equal to 14.571 (95% CI from 1.682 to 126.249; p = 0.011). The average value of the distal displacement of the center of rotation after the surgery was 32.0 mm (min-max 4.7 to 90.3 mm; Me 23.9 mm), the average residual displacement of the center of rotation after the surgery was 6.2 mm (min-max 10.8 to 32.1 mm; Me 4.75 mm). The standard approach was characterized by a lesser distal displacement of the center of rotation than various osteotomy options: 26.1 mm (min-max 4.7 to 77.2; Me 19.1 mm) vs 41.2 mm (min-max 10.8 to 90.3 mm; Me 36 mm), respectively (p = 0.021). A well-fixed stem preservation resulted in the mean distal displacement of the femur of 23.8 mm, the stem removed — of 35.0 mm. Conclusion. A horizontal center of rotation displacement of 40 mm or more affects the long-term survival of the implant. When the significant lowering of the femur is required (more than 30 mm) and a well-fixed femoral component is preserved, it is advisable to use the approach with extended trochanteric osteotomy or shortening femoral osteotomy. The acetabular component placement into the true acetabulum with weakened bone requires extended screw fixation. In this situation the use of individual 3D-printed implants has potential benefits.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):9-20
pages 9-20 views

Comment to the Article “Revision Hip Arthroplasty with Initially High Position of the Acetabular Component: What’s Special?”

Danilyak V.V.

Abstract

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Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):21-24
pages 21-24 views

Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty with Latissimus Dorsi Transfer for Humerus Fractures Sequelae

Chirkov N.N., Nikolaev N.S., Kaminskii A.V., Spiridonova O.V.

Abstract

Relevance. Fractures of the proximal humerus occupy the 3rd place in the structure of fractures in the elderly. Failure to treat these injuries leads to irreversible changes in the shoulder. The main treatment for the latter is arthroplasty. The surgical treatment of this category of patients is still a difficult task. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of standard reverse arthroplasty with reverse arthroplasty in combination with the reconstruction of the external rotators of the shoulder or transposition of the latissimus dorsi. Materials and Methods. The retrospective evaluation of treatment results of 96 patients with consequences of shoulder injuries was conducted. Of these, 51 patients underwent standard reverse arthroplasty (group I), and 45 patients (group II) underwent arthroplasty with reconstruction of the external rotators of the shoulder or transposition of the latissimus dorsi. The female patients accounted for 68.8%. The duration of the injury varied from 8 months to 2.5 years, the follow-up — from 1 to 7 years (Me = 3.5). The results were assessed with VAS, ASES, UCLA scales. Results. The positive outcomes were observed in most patients. Complications: dislocations of the endoprosthesis occurred in 16.7%, infectious complications — in 5.2%, shoulder component instability — in 2.1%, fracture of the humeral diaphysis — in 3.1%, neurovascular bundle injury — in 2.1% of cases. In the patients of group I, dislocations occurred significantly more often than in the patients of group II. To reduce the risk of complications, a rational tactic has been developed for treating patients with consequences of shoulder injuries. If electroneuromyography values from the deltoid muscle were less than 40% of the contralateral side, or if mineral bone density T-score was less than 2.5 SD, arthroplasty was not performed. During arthroplasty, it is necessary to perform the direct suturing of the of the infraspinatus and teres minor tendons to the humerus. If it is impossible, the latissimus dorsi transfer is indicated. Conclusion. Reverse arthroplasty in the treatment of the humerus fractures sequelae is an effective technique. To reduce the risk of complications, it is necessary to provide the additional stability of the endoprosthesis by reconstruction of the external rotators or latissimus dorsi transfer. It is advisable to refrain from arthroplasty in cases of severe deltoid hypotrophy and severe osteoporosis.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):25-33
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Lateral Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty in Structure of Modern Knee Replacement: Is It «Woe From Wit» or a Viable Go-To Method?

Chugaev D.V., Kornilov N.N., Karpukhin A.S., Kogan P.G., Lasunsky S.A.

Abstract

Background. Results of numerous contemporary studies indicate that medial and lateral unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) are almost equally effective both in clinical and functional aspects with no statistically significant difference in most cases. Furthermore, both operations tend to reach the effectiveness of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), despite the common opinion that any UKA is a more complex and skill challenging surgery with a less predictable outcome. The purpose — to asses if UKA in the patients with end-stage lateral unicompartmental osteoarthritis is an effective surgical intervention that may allow obtaining good and excellent medium-term functional results, that are comparable to the results of the medial unicompartmental arthroplasty, and to see if there are any benefits in comparison to the total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Materials and Methods. 140 middle-aged and elderly adults with end-stage osteoarthritis underwent knee arthroplasty at Vreden National Medical Research Center of Traumatology and Cheboksary Federal Center of Traumatology, Orthopedics and Arthroplasty. Group I (lateral UKA) (the main ) consisted of 15 patients with knee arthritis and type I Krakow valgus knee deformity, who underwent the lateral UKA with a fixed all-polyethylene tibial component. Group II (medial UKA) included 58 patients with end-stage medial unicompartmental osteoarthritis, who underwent the medial UKA using an endoprosthesis of a similar design. Group III (TKA) was represented by 67 patients with gonarthrosis accompanied by type II Krackow valgus knee deformity, who underwent the total knee arthroplasty with cruciate retaining (CR) prosthesis. The comparison between the groups was carried out regarding the achieved range of motion, functional result (using Oxford Knee Score and Forgotten Joint Score), as well as the rate of different types of complications. Results. During the study, two main objectives were set. The first was to compare the outcomes of the lateral and medial UKA. It was revealed that the lateral UKA allowed the patients to obtain good function of the operated knee, with the best results among the compared groups on the Forgotten Joint Score. The second objective was to compare the results of the lateral UKA and TKA in the patients with type II Krackow knee valgus deformity. Here, our study revealed that the group of UKA (group I) compared to the TKA had better results according to Forgotten Joint Score (71.5±5.3 vs 65.2±7; p = 0.9) and had a slightly lower range of motion according to Oxford Knee Score (34.6±2.3 versus 35.9±2.2; p = 0.7). It is worth noting that in both cases the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion. Despite the fact that the lateral UKA made it possible to achieve a good functional outcome, the integral score was the same as in the groups with the medial UKA and the total knee arthroplasty. The older patients were more satisfied with the results of the partial arthroplasty than with the results of the total.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):34-48
pages 34-48 views

Comparison of the Accuracy and Safety of Pedicle Screw Placement in Thoracic Spine Between 3D Printed Navigation Templates and Free Hand Technique

Kovalenko R.A., Ptashnikov D.A., Cherebillo V.Y., Kashin V.A.

Abstract

Relevance. Transpedicular spine fixation is considered the gold standard for posterior stabilization of the spine in various pathological processes. The most common implantation technique is the free hand method. But today the implantation with 3D printed individual navigation templates is gaining popularity. Purpose — to compare results of the pedicle screw placement in thoracic spine with application of 3D printed navigation templates by various design and free hand technique. Materials and Methods. Results of the three group of patients were analyzed based on postoperative CT. In group 1 (free hand) 112 screws were placed to 23 patients. In group 42 screws were placed to 11 patients using bilateral monosegmental navigation templates, in group 3 (13 patients, 42 screws) — using bilateral monosegmental templates with additional support on the spinous process. The safety of implantation was assessed and compared in all groups. In groups 2 and 3 the accuracy was also evaluated based on the difference between the planned and actual screws trajectory. Results. In group 1 safety grade 0 was registered in 66,96%, safety grade 1 in 18,75%, safety grade 2 — in 9,82%, safety grade 3 — in 4,46%. In group 2 grade 0 was registered in 85,71%, safety grade 1 — in 14,29%. In group 3 grade 0 — in 90,74%, safety grade 1 — in 9,26%. There were no cases of the cortical bone perforation for more than the half of the screw diameter in groups 2 and 3. The differences in the safety parameters are significant between free hand and both groups with application of the navigation templates. Assessment of the deviation hasn’t revealed significant difference depending on the type of the templates. Conclusion. The use of the individual navigation templates for pedicular screws implantation in the thoracic spine is safer than the free hand method (p<0.05). Single-level bilateral matrices made by FDM technology from polylactide with support on a part of the dorsal vertebral structures make it possible to achieve the high implantation accuracy. Additional support on the spinous process does not lead to a statistically significant improvement in accuracy and safety indicators (p<0.05), while requiring extended dissection and resection of the ligamentous elements.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):49-60
pages 49-60 views

Assessment of the Patellofemoral Joint Condition and the Possibility of Its Functional Improvement after the Closed Fractures of the Patella

Golubev G.S., Al-hababi A., Khadi R.A.

Abstract

Relevance. The patellar fractures are relatively rare. Their clinical significance is associated with the fact that they can cause the development of severe patellofemoral pain syndrome. Lateral retinaculum release was introduced into clinical practice in 1970s for treating this syndrome and since was widely used. The biomechanical validity of this operation has been proven experimentally, but the role of lateral release in the prevention of patellofemoral arthritis progression and concomitant pain after patellar fractures remains poorly understood. The purpose of the study was to improve the results of the patellar fractures surgery by combining osteosynthesis with lateral retinaculum release. Materials and Methods. This was a non-randomized, cohort, open-label prospective study with retrospective control. The treatment results of the patients with closed patellar fractures were analyzed. The prospective group (n = 45) was formed sequentially during 2018–2019. The retrospective control group (n = 41) was selected from the database of the city center of traumatology according to the inclusion criteria. The difference between both group was that in the patients of the prospective group, open osteosynthesis of the patella with wire segments and a stretching wire loop was combined with minimally invasive release of the lateral retinaculum. The function of the operated knee joint was assessed in 12 months after the surgery by the KOOS. The magnitude of the patellar articular surface discongruence was measured by x-rays; the stage of patellofemoral arthritis was classified by Iwano. The statistical analysis included the calculation of medians, means, absence/presence differences in groups indicators, correlation analysis of the measured variables. Results. The comparing groups were heterogeneous in gender, age, and types of fractures: the prospective group comprised 18 women (49.7±14.7 years), 27 men (45.1±11.2 years), the retrospective 13 women (50.2±12.3 years), 28 men (41.9±10.7 years). In the prospective group, compared with retrospective, the 34-C1, 34-C2 fractures were prevailed. The null hypothesis about the equality of KOOS indicators and the stage of patellofemoral arthritis in both groups was rejected at the p<0.05 significance level. The patients of the prospective group had better KOOS indicators. The Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between KOOS scores in the range 0.26 to 0.41 and a negative correlation between the stage of arthritis (-0.29) and lateral release. Conclusion. Testing the null hypothesis that there was no difference between the KOOS scores between the prospective and control groups confirmed its inconsistency. The beneficial effect of lateral release on the knee function was demonstrated in the mid-term results of the patellar fractures osteosynthesis.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):61-73
pages 61-73 views

Comment to the Article “Assessment of the Patellofemoral Joint Condition and the Possibility of its Functional Improvement after the Closed Fractures of the Patella”

Chugaev D.V.

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Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):74-79
pages 74-79 views

The Interzonal Distribution of the Load on the Plantar Surface of the Foot During Walking in the Patients with Cerebral Palsy as an Objective Criterion of Functional Impairment Severity

Smirnova L.M., Dzhomardly E.I., Koltsov A.A.

Abstract

Relevance. The main direction of rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy is the preservation and enhancement of the existing level of support and locomotion, as well as compensation of its impairment through various methods of rehabilitation. For an adequate prescription and reliable assessment of these measures effectiveness, it is necessary to use objective indicators of functional impairment characteristic of cerebral palsy. The purpose of this study was to substantiate objective biomechanical indicators of functional impairment in children with cerebral palsy based on the analysis of the interzonal distribution of the load on the foot during walking, taking into account the level of global motor functions impairment. Materials and Methods. 47 children with cerebral palsy at the GMFCS levels of impairment 1 to 3 were examined. The control group consisted of 14 children without anatomical and functional signs of support and locomotion system impairment. Biomechanical examination was performed on the complex «DiaSled-M-Scan» with matrix plantar pressure meters in the form of insoles. The statistical analysis of the data was carried out by nonparametric methods using the SPSS for Widows software. Results. The analysis of the anatomical and functional impairment of 94 feet of the children with cerebral palsy and 28 feet of the control group revealed differences in the interzonal distribution of the load under the feet in six variables (p from <0.001 to 0.003). The most typical were: an increase in the toe-to-heel load ratio (on average by 80%), an increase in the load on the arch (by 49%), and a decrease in the medio-lateral load ratio on the toe (by 37%). For GMFCS 1 patients, a significant indicator of impairment was an increase in the partial load on the arch, for GMFCS 2 and 3 patients — a decrease in the load on the heel and an increase it under the toe. This leads to an increase in the toe-to-heel load ratio. Conclusion. It is advisable to use the revealed indicators of roll-over-the-foot impairment in the functional diagnosis of the condition and in assessing the effectiveness of rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy.

Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):80-92
pages 80-92 views

The Medium-Term Results of Complex Treatment of the Children with I-II Stage Dysplastic Osteoarthritis

Bortulev P.I., Vissarionov S.V., Bortuleva O.V., Baskov V.E., Barsukov D.B., Pozdnikin I.Y., Baskaeva T.V.

Abstract

Relevance. The frequency of hip dysplasia does not decrease and in different countries of the world ranges from 2 to 50 or more per 1000 newborns. The generally accepted standard for the treatment of children under 1 year of age with hip dysplasia is the functional method. At the same time, the number of patients with untimely revealed hip dysplasia, as well as with an unsatisfactory outcome of functional treatment, for example, according to the A. Lorenz technique, remains at a fairly high level. In this regard, the use of corrective surgical interventions remains relevant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the medium-term results of the treatment of children with I–II stage dysplastic coxarthrosis using the authors’ rehabilitation algorithm based on the functional state of the hip. Materials and Methods. The study was based on the results of a comprehensive examination of 41 patients (48 hip joints) with stage I–IIa dysplastic coxarthrosis undergone the surgery and rehabilitation according to the authors’ algorithm in the period from 2016 to 2018. To compare the obtained results, we performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical records of 32 patients (39 hip joints) undergone the similar surgery, although with the routine rehabilitation. All patients underwent a clinical examination with a mandatory assessment of step cycle, periarticular muscles endurance, and filling out specialized questionnaires. Radiological evaluation included hip x-ray and multi-spiral computed tomography. To obtain the most objective information of the hip functional state and lower extremities, we used electrophysiological (EMG) and biomechanics (stabilometry) studies. Results. Clinical and functional results were evaluated no earlier than 24 months after the treatment. The patients undergone rehabilitation according to the authors’ algorithm demonstrated the significant (p<0.05) increase in the strength and endurance of their hip area muscles, as well as in their electromyographic indicators, resulting in the improvement of their clinical and biomechanical parameters. This did not observed in the patients undergone the routine rehabilitation. Conclusion. The analysis of the medium-term results of the complex treatment of children with stage I–II dysplastic coxarthrosis, including surgical stable fixation and the authors’ rehabilitation method, led to a significant (p<0.05) improvement in the static-dynamic function of the lower extremities. This was confirmed by the results of clinical, electrophysiological, biomechanical evaluation, as well as by the employment of specialized scales that took into account the hip function, quality of life, and social adaptation of the patient.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):93-105
pages 93-105 views

Comment to the Article “The Medium-Term Results of Complex Treatment of the Children with I-II Stage Dysplastic Osteoarthritis”

Akhtyamov I.F.

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Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):106-108
pages 106-108 views

Comparative Analysis of Knee Joint Fusion with Long Locking Nail and Ilizarov Apparatus in Patients with Deep Infection after Arthroplasty

Solomin L.N., Shchepkina E.A., Korchagin K.L., Sabirov F.K.

Abstract

Relevance. Deep infection after knee arthroplasty requires radical surgical treatment of the infection site, removal of endoprosthesis components, and an antimicrobial spacer placement. If revision knee arthroplasty is impossible, the «gold standard» for this kind of patients is knee joint arthrodesis. The purpose of the study was the comparative analysis of knee joint fusion by external and internal fixation. Materials and Methods. The analysis of 60 cases of knee arthrodesis was carried out. The patients were divided into two groups with 30 patients in each. In the first group, knee arthrodesis was performed with long locking nail, in the second group — with external ring fixation. We compared the groups by intraoperative and drainage blood loss, the inpatient treatment duration, the terms of fusion and complications registered. The patients quality of life was evaluated using the SF-36 questionnaire before surgery, for the periods of 3, 6, and 12 months after the surgery. Results. The comparison of two methods of knee arthrodesis showed that blood loss in the internal fixation compared with external one, was 2.03 times more, the duration of inpatient treatment was 1.4 times less, and the total number of complications was 4.4 times less. However, the complications that affected the treatment outcome in long nail group were 1.5 times more. The differences in the average time of ankylosis formation were not statistically significant (p<0.05). The functional results of the treatment in 3 months after surgery in the group with internal fixation were much better. In 6 months after surgery the quality of life had no significant differences. In 12 months follow-up the indices in both groups were the same. Conclusion. The results of our study suggests us to think, knee joint arthrodesis by long fusion nail should be prefereble. If the nail insertion is technically impossible, and there is the high risk of deep infection recurrence, the external osteosynthesis should be used.

Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):109-118
pages 109-118 views

Complex Revision Arthroplasty Planning with Telemedicine Expert Advice

Belov M.V., Rassamakhin S.V.

Abstract

Relevance. An increase in the number of revisions is an inevitable consequence of the growth of primary arthroplasty number. The imperfection of implants and the lag in patient’s seeking medical help significantly increase the number of complex revisions. Extensive bone defects after removal of an unstable implant urge us to think about the better methods of these defects compensation and implants fixation. The purpose — was to assess the modern telemedicine opportunities for improving the preoperative planning of the complex revision arthroplasties. Materials and Methods. The study comprised 13 patients undergone revisions for implant instability in a regional orthopedic department using telemedicine differed advices including 11 hip and 2 knee arthroplasties. All patients had extensive bone defects. Results. In 12 cases, the surgeries were performed according to the recommendations from the expers of the Vreden National Medical Research Center of Traumatology and Orthopedics, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. In one case, an individual system had been proposed as the main choice, but the preoperative plan was changed in favor of standard revision components. The short-term results of the surgeries were assessed as satisfactory. Conclusion. The use of modern information technologies for preoperative planning makes it possible to more accurately determine the indications for choosing implants. In particularly difficult cases, it becomes necessary to use individual implants. The right final choice depends on high-quality preoperative planning and effective interaction among medical hospitals of various levels.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):119-129
pages 119-129 views

THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES

Bone Tissue Properties after Lanthanum Zirconate Ceramics Implantation: Experimental Study

Izmodenova M.Y., Gilev M.V., Ananyev M.V., Zaytsev D.V., Antropova I.P., Farlenkov E.S., Tropin E.S., Volokitina E.A., Kutepov S.M., Yushkov B.G.

Abstract

Background. The ceramic based on lanthanum zirconate is characterized by optimal mechanical characteristics, low corrosion potential and the absence of cytotoxicity. Thus, the possibility of its use as bone substituting material is currently studied. The purpose of the study was to determine the mechanical, morphological and x-ray spectral characteristics of bone tissue after implantation of ceramic material based on lanthanum zirconate. Materials and methods. The experiment was conducted on 27 female guinea pigs of a single line, divided into 3 groups of 9 animals each. In the main group (LZ), lanthanum zirconate rods were implanted. In the comparison group (b-TCP), fixation was performed with b-tricalcium phosphate rods. In the native control group (NC) no surgical procedures were performed. A fracture was created in distal metadiaphysis area of femur using open osteoclasia. Animals were hatched 4, 10, and 25 weeks after the start of the experiment. Bone tissue features were studied in the perifocal region. The following methods were used: uniaxial compression, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDxMA). The statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney test. Results. The architectonics of the newly formed bone in the LZ group appeared as a developed lacunar tubular network. The structural components of the extracellular matrix were oriented along the bone functional load vectors. The Ca/P ratio in the periimplant region of the bone in the LZ group was significantly higher than in the b-TCP and NC groups. This may indicate a high strength of the newly formed bone. Mechanical testing showed that the strength and performance of the system of “lanthanum zirconate – bone” under uniaxial compression exceeded the similar indicators in the b-TCP group. Conclusion. The synthesized new material based on lanthanum zirconate seems promising for use in traumatology and orthopedics. Although, additional studies are needed to optimize these implants integration into bone tissue.

Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):130-140
pages 130-140 views

CASE REPORTS

Сlinical and Radiological Characteristics of Two Patients with Acromesomelic Dysplasia Maroteaux Type with New Mutation in the NRP2 Gene

Markova T.V., Kenis V.M., Mironovich O.L., Shchagina O.A., Nagornova T.S., Melchenko E.V., Dadali E.L.

Abstract

Relevance. Acromezomelic dysplasia Maroteaux type (AMDM) is a rare variant of autosomal recessive skeletal disorder. The disease is caused by mutations in the NPR2 gene, coding the protein product which is one of the main regulators of endochondral ossification. To date, 49 mutations in this gene have been identified, more than half of which are missense substitutions. The presence of polymorphism of phenotypic manifestations makes it necessary to describe the features of clinical and radiological characteristics of the disease in patients with newly identified mutations in the gene, which will help to optimize its diagnosis. Case presentation. The clinical and radiological characteristics of two siblings with newly identified mutations c.125_126insTGGCG (p.Trp42CysfsTer12) and (p.Arg767Ter) in the NPR2 gene are described. Intra-family polymorphism of clinical manifestations is shown. Discussion. Clinical manifestations and radiological data in two siblings with AMDM caused by new mutations in the NPR2 gene and analysis of the literature data allowed us to conclude that there is no correlation of the severity of clinical signs and the type of mutations in the gene. Patients are born with normal growth and weight, and clinical manifestations (disproportionate dwarfism) appeared during the first year of life. The main radiological signs are shortening of tubular bones, most pronounced in the upper limbs and wedge-shaped formation of the vertebral bodies. Genotype-phenotype correlations confirmed the hypothesis that the majority of mutations leading to the disease is localized within the ligand-binding and guanylate cyclase domains. Conclusion. The obvious genetic heterogeneity, the similarity of the clinical manifestations of individual nosological groups of skeletal dysplasias, as well as the presence of intrafamily and interfamily polymorphism of clinical manifestations allows us to consider sequencing of a clinical exome or whole exome as the optimal method for diagnosing this group of diseases.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):141-149
pages 141-149 views

Unstable Osteosynthesis of a Humeral Diaphyseal Fracture as a Cause of a Pseudoarthrosis and an Extensive Bone Defect (A Case Report)

Bragina S.V., Iskusov P.V., Lapidus D.A., Ivashov A.G., Kuroptev V.G.

Abstract

Relevance. The causes of the formation of a humeral diaphyseal pseudarthrosis can be various risk factors and their combination, including iatrogenic, associated with osteosynthesis technique non-compliance. This leads to instability of the metal constructions with the destructive consequences for the bone tissue and the injured limb function in general. Case presentation. A 60-year-old woman received a right humeral diaphyseal fracture with displacement (АО/АSIF 12-A3) and underwent locking intramedullary osteosynthesis. Subsequently, the fixation failure developed. In 3 years after the primary surgery, a combination of two complications was diagnosed: a nonunion and a defect of the humerus with the formation of a traumatic bone cyst in the distal part. The patient was reoperated: resection of the pseudarthrosis, removal of the right humerus cyst, and revision plate osteosynthesis with bone autografting. A positive result of treatment was obtained: fracture consolidation, reparation of the distal humerus bone structure and restoration of the right upper limb function. Conclusion. The presented clinical case demonstrates the importance of careful preoperative planning of osteosynthesis: the selection of an appropriate implant size, and adequate intraoperative blocking of the intramedullary nail to create a stable “bone-fixator” system. The careful outpatient follow-up of the patient, early detection of possible complications and timely surgical removal of the unstable implant with revision osteosynthesis are required.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):150-157
pages 150-157 views

Surgical Treatment of Patient with Advanced Kienböck’s Disease: A Case Report

Khominets V.V., Tkachenko M.V., Ivanov V.S., Muhkurya D.Y.

Abstract

Relevance. For more than a century, many methods of treating Kienböck’s disease have been developed, although none of them could achieve consistently good results. The transposition of the pisiform into the lunate location after removal of the latter, as well as the combination of this operation with a shortening osteotomy of the radius, is considered as one of the promising methods of this disease treatment. The purpose of this publication was to demonstrate the options of the modern reconstructive surgery for the treatment the stage IIIb Kienböck’s disease. Case presentation. A clinical case of a successful non-free transplant of a blood-supplied pisiform in aseptic necrosis of the lunate is described. A patient was a 21 year old military serviceman with stage IIIb Kienböck’s disease complicated by persistent pain syndrome and severe dysfunction of the left wrist. He underwent removing the fragmented lunate with replacing it with a pisiform on the tendon feeding pedicle and performing simultaneous shortening osteotomy of the radius. The displaced bone was fixed with an anchor to the dorsal surface of the distal radial metaepiphysis. In 12 months after the surgery, an improvement of the wrist function was achieved in the form of an increase in the range of motion compared with the preoperative period and a significant decrease in the level of pain syndrome. The radiological examination at the same time showed the preservation of the shape, size and intraarticular localization of the bone autograft. Conclusion. The use of transposition of the blood-supplied pisiform on a permanent tendon feeding pedicle into the region of the removed lunate demonstrated, in our opinion, the favorable possibilities of successful surgical treatment of the late stages of Kienböck’s disease. A favorable outcome of such treatment is possible only in a specialized hospital, where there are trained specialists in the field of hand surgery, and there are also opportunities for employment a modern rehabilitation complex aimed at restoring movements in the hand joints, taking into account the strength and coordination parameters of its anatomical structures.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):163-169
pages 163-169 views

COMMENTS

Comment to the Article “Unstable Osteosynthesis of a Humeral Diaphyseal Fracture as a Cause of a Pseudoarthrosis and an Extensive Bone Defect (A Case Report)”

Belenkiy I.G.

Abstract

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Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):158-162
pages 158-162 views

REVIEW

The Effectiveness of Various Surgical Techniques in the Treatment of Local Knee Cartilage Lesions (Review)

Kulyaba T.A., Bantser S.A., Trachuk P.A., Vorontsova T.N., Kornilov N.N.

Abstract

Introduction. To restore the knee local cartilage lesions, a large number of alternative surgical techniques are used in clinical practice: isolated debridement of the lesion area, chondrogenesis stimulation, mosaic osteochondral grafting, cell technologies, collagen membranes (matrices), and a combination of the above methods. The purpose of this article was to compare the effectiveness of various surgical methods of treating patients with local cartilage lesions of the femur based on analysis of relevant publications. Materials and Methods. The review included 85 publications of domestic and foreign authors within 2005 to 2020. The search was carried out in electronic scientific databases PubMed and eLIBRARy. Results. The medium and long term outcomes of debridement and/or various options of chondrogenesis stimulating, despite their wide popularity, in terms of clinical, radiological, and histological indicators, are inferior to all other surgical techniques. Mosaic osteochondral auto- and/or allografting, as well as transplantation of autologous chondrocytes culture with a collagen membrane, are characterized by the best 15 to 20-year outcomes, allowing most patients to maintain the same level of activity as before the lesion occurred. The combination of matrices with other cellular products or microfracturing shows similar medium-term results, but it long-term efficacy remains unknown. Conclusion. The use of debridement and/or chondrogenesis stimulation should be limited to minimal defects. From both a clinical and an economic point of view, mosaic osteochondral grafting is the optimal method for the treatment of knee local cartilage lesions with an area up to 4 to 6 cm2 . The combination of membranes with various cellular products or microfracturing is indicated in case of extensive local cartilage lesions or if mosaic osteochondral grafting is not appropriate.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):170-181
pages 170-181 views

Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Natural History

Sereda A.P.

Abstract

This review article is devoted to the natural course of hip femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The evolution of the understanding and views of surgeons on primary (idiopathic) arthrosis are considered. It is noted that nowadays, the primary arthrosis in fact almost always arises from anatomical variations. Among those are cam- and pincer-deformities, leading to impingement. In most of the major works, a reliable causal relationship of cam-FAI with arthrosis has been proven. Moreover, cam-FAI also carries the risk of impending arthroplasty. The association of pincer-FAI with arthrosis has been controversial. The course of FAI arthrosis, most likely, is not as aggressive as, for example, dysplastic arthrosis, and less often requires arthroplastics. Since cam-FAI is a reliable risk factor for arthrosis and arthroplasty, it could be assumed that timely surgical correction of FAI would stop or slow down arthrosis and avoid arthroplasty. However, at present, this assumption has not been proven, therefore, there is no reason to assert that surgery for FAI in any way affects its natural history in the form of severe arthrosis following by arthroplasty.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):182-192
pages 182-192 views

OBITUARY

Nurlan D. Batpenov. 29.08.1949 – 15.07.2020

Editorial a.

Abstract

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Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(3):193-194
pages 193-194 views

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