Vol 24, No 3 (2018)



Tikhilov R.M.



Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2018;24(3):7-8
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Reshetov I.V., Tikhilov R.M., Kochish A.Y., Shubnyakov I.I.


The authors present a short analysis of autoabstracts of all theses in traumatology and orthopedics speciality (14.01.15), 10 doctoral and 59 candidate theses, that were defended at 11 dedicated dissertation boards starting mid of October 2016 until mid of October 2017 and underwent expert reviews during 2017 in expert council of the Higher certifying commission on surgical science.

The absolute majority of 26 papers in traumatology (16 candidate and 5 doctoral theses) were dedicated to treatment of patients with different fractures and another 5 candidate theses examined issues of arthroscopic procedures in case of a trauma. 25 dissertations in orthopedics mainly reviewed aspects of large joints replacement (6 candidate and 3 doctoral these) and treatment of periprosthetic infection (4 candidate theses). Spine pathologies (5 candidate theses) and oncology orthopedics (2 candidate theses) prevailed among dissertation topics on paediatric orthopedics. The only doctoral thesis on paediatric orthopaedics was dedicated to clubfoot.

In accordance with recommended criteria of clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research journal 40 (67,8%) candidate theses and 2 (20%) doctoral theses corresponded to evidence level III, 17 (28,8%) candidate and 8 (80%) doctoral theses were classified as evidence level IV and only 2 candidate theses (3,4%) formally corresponded to evidence level II. 

Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2018;24(3):9-18
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Sereda A.P.


Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2018;24(3):19-21
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Efimov N.N., Stafeev D.V., Lasunskii S.A., Mashkov V.M., Parfeev D.G., Shubnyakov I.I., Tikhilov R.M.


Purpose. Instability is a challenging complication of revision hip arthroplasty and a frequent cause of repeat revisions. Constrained liners and dual mobility systems have gained major attention among the options of dislocation prophylaxis.

 The aim of this study is to compare the outcomes of revision hip arthroplasy with use of constrained liners and dual mobility systems.

 Materials and Methods. We used DePuy Duraloc (inner diameter 28 mm) and Zimmer Trilogy (inner diameter 32 mm) systems in the constrained liners group (N 78, mean follow-up — 66.2 month, 54-82), Serf Novae and Biomet Avantage systems in the dual mobility group (N 58, mean follow-up — 17.8 month, 10-41). The two groups were comparable in age, sex and different potential dislocation risk factors, however, dual mobility cups were used more frequently in revisions due to unreduced and recurrent dislocations and in patients with the history of instability following total hip arthroplasty. There were also differences in the structure of primary diagnosis.

 Results. We observed 14 (17.9%) dislocations, 10 (12.8%) of which occurred within 2 years after surgery, and also 3 (3.8%) cases of aseptic loosening of the acetabular component, 4 (5.1%) cases of locking mechanism damage without dislocation and 8 (10.3%) cases of deep infection in the constrained liners group. In the dual mobility group we observed 3 (5.17%) large articulation dislocations, 1 (1.7%) case of aseptic loosening of the acetabular component and 4 (6.9%) cases of deep infection. The difference in dislocation rates in two groups was significant (p<0.05). The analysis of the constrained liners group revealed an increased risk of dislocation in cases when a constrained system was implanted into a retained acetabular component compared to cases with acetabular shell revision (p<0.01; RR = 7.2, 95% CI: 2.05-25.26), as well as a trend for increased risk of dislocation in cases when DePuy Duraloc liners (inner diameter 28 mm) were used compared to Zimmer Trilogy (inner diameter 32 mm) (p = 0.07; RR = 4.97, 95% CI: 1.03-24.04).

 Conclusion. Dual mobility systems proved to be more effective than constrained liners in revision hip arthroplasty although being used more frequently as a treatment rather than prophylaxis of instability. Constrained liners bear a higher risk of dislocations when implanted into retained acetabular components and when used with heads of lesser diameter.

Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2018;24(3):22-33
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Korytkin A.A., El Moudni Y.M., Kovaldov K.A., Novikova Y.S., Belousov B.Y.


Periprosthetic fractures are one of the main reasons for revision surgery according to the data of large joint replacement registers. Treatment of patients with periprosthetic fractures is associated with a big number of complications and still keeps its relevance.

 Purpose of the study is to evaluate treatment outcome of patients with periprosthetic femoral fractures in hip replacement.

 Material and Methods. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of medical histories of 76 patients who underwent treatment of periprosthetic femoral fractures. The patients were divided into groups by the Unified Classification System (UCS). Follow up period was from 6 to 124 months (mean of 34.90±28.81).

 Results. 3 cases (3.9%) of periprosthetic femoral fractures were the complications after primary hip arthroplasty and occurred intraoperatively, 75 cases (96.1%) were complications after revision surgery; 56 cases (71.8%) were reported with uncemented and 22 cases (28.2%) with cemented femoral components. In 30 cases (38.5%) fractures had a iatrogenic nature and occurred intraoperatively, in 48 cases (61.5%) — occurred due to high- and low energy trauma. Type B fractures were observed most often — in 53 cases (68%). Conservative treatment, fixation by cerclage or by plate and screws has proven to be the least effective operative options. In the group of patients with extended osteotomy of the greater trochanter the healing was achieved in 90.5% of cases, while in the group without osteotomy — in 75% of cases. Low healing rate of periprosthetic fractures was observed for A and B1 type fractures (65% and 66.7% respectively). Follow up of patients with B2, B3 and C type fractures demonstrated consolidation in more than 80% of cases. Various complications were reported in 17 cases (21.8%).

 Conclusion. Effective treatment of patients with periprosthetic femoral fractures was associated with extended osteotomy of the greater trochanter (γ = 0.51; p = 0.032), absence of complications in postoperative period (R = 0.55; p = 0.00001), B2, B3 and C fracture types (γ = 0.40; p = 0.02) and use of revision uncemented femoral components with distal fixation (γ = 0.35; p = 0.018). In the authors opinion use of sutures or cerclage wires are not effective in cases of trochanteric fractures and stable femoral components; it would be preferable to perform internal fixation by a plate with hooks such as Dall-Miles. In case of doubts in regard of stem stability the revision should rather stipulate use of uncemented femoral components, in particular long stems with distal fixation.

Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2018;24(3):34-44
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Cherkasov M.A., Tikhilov R.M., Shubnyakov I.I., Kovalenko A.N., Mugutdinov Z.A.


Background. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is reliable and successful intervention in terms of relieving pain and improving joint function. Between 7% and 16% of patients are dissatisfied after THA. To assess predictors and postoperative determinants of satisfaction 3 and 12 months after THA.

 Material and Methods. During our research from 2015 to 2017 prospectively 1015 patients were interviewed using patient related outcome measures (a questionnaire of functional outcome (Oxford Hip Score, Harris Hip Score), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D)) preoperatively, 3 and 12 months postoperatively. Satisfaction was assessed using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Also Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.

 Results. A female gender, absence of interventions on the operated joint in history were preoperative predictors of satisfaction. The main postoperative determinant of satisfaction was the fulfillment of patient’s expectations, improve physical function, quality of life, relief of pain.

 Conclusion. To improve patient satisfaction after THA, patients’ expectations and their fulfillment need to be carefully addressed. Patients with a history of interventions on the operated joint with low physical function or quality of life, high level of pain should be identified and specifically informed on expected surgical outcome

Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2018;24(3):45-54
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Kotelnikov G.P., Zolotovskaia I.A., Davydkin I.L., Poverennova I.E., Dolgushkin D.A.


Pain in the lower back is one of the frequent reasons for seeking medical help among people over 60 years of age. The study of this problem is of interest to specialists of various profiles, including neurologists, rheumatologists, orthopedic surgeons and therapists.

 Purposeto determine prevalence rate of sacroiliac joint pathology in elderly patients with low back pain (LBP) in conjunction with evaluation of clinical significance of bone resorption and cytokines markers.

 Materials and Methods.The study was conducted with consecutive inclusion of patients (n = 259) with mean age of 65.5 year old [62.5; 69.5] who addressed the hospital for the first time in calendar year with complaints for low back pain. The authors performed MRI examination of lumbar-sacral spine and sacroiliac joint, assessed transforming growth factor β1 (TGF β1), interleukin (IL) 1β and IL-6, Beta-Crosslaps (β-CrossLaps) criteria, P1NP (N-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I) concentration and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) level.

 Results. 39.4% of patients older 60 years with low back pain on MRI demonstrated changes in sacroiliac joints with statistically significant higher (p = 0.037) pain level as compared to patients without pathology of sacroiliac joint, as well as higher values of TGF-β1 (p = 0.033), IL-1β (p = 0.028), IL-6 (p = 0.041), β-CrossLaps (p = 0.028), P1NP (p = 0.037) and DPD (p = 0.002).

 Conclusion. Reported alterations in sacroiliac joint conditioned by degenerative and dystrophic processes are associated with distinctive signs of osteoarthrosis and confirm non-specific inflammation active with bone resorption in patients with low back pain.

Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2018;24(3):55-64
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Panteleyev A.A., Mironov S.P., Buhtin K.M., Sazhnev M.L., Kazmin A.I., Pereverzev V.S., Kolesov S.V.


Introduction. Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) provides for significant segmental correction of the sagittal balance of the spine. At the same time, the technique is associated with a high risk of complications, with rod fracture at the osteotomy site being the most common.

 The purpose of this study — to assess the effectiveness of four-rod fixation compared to literature data on standard two-rod fixation in patients undergoing PSO.

 Materials and Methods. The study is a retrospective analysis of 47 consecutive patients with rigid spinal deformities, who underwent pedicle subtraction osteotomy at the lumbar level. The average age of the patients (33 females and 14 males) was 59.7 years. In all cases spinal fixation carried out using a four-rod construct with additional short rods at the osteotomy site. The minimal postoperative follow-up was 2 years. A detailed analysis of the radiographic data was carried out with calculation of the global sagittal balance and spinopelvic parameters. A detailed assessment of complications in the early and late postoperative periods was also performed. After an exhaustive review of literature, a comparative analysis was made of the four-rod fixation technique with current literature data on the frequency of complications (in particular, rod fractures in the osteotomy zone) after two-rod fixation.

 Results. In all cases the osteotomy was performed at one level, most often at L3 (49%). The average length of fixation was 9.8 segments. The average angle of segmental correction was 27.1°. In most cases, it was possible to achieve adequate correction of spinopelvic parameters. Among complications, bone resorption around screws was most prevalent (23.4% of cases). Proximal junctional kyphosis occurred in 12.8% of cases, neurologic deficit — in 14.9% of cases, infectious complications — in 10.6% cases. Asymptomatic pseudarthrosis, confirmed by CT data, was observed in 12.8% of patients. Rod fracture at the PSO site and adjacent segments was not observed in any of the cases. Rod fractures of other localization were observed in 10.6% of patients.

 Conclusion. According to the literature, the frequency of rod fractures at the osteotomy site is the most frequent complication of PSO. The results of this study showed that four-rod fixation in PSO significantly reduces the incidence of pseudarthrosis and rod fracture rate in the long-term follow-up and provides greater control over the process of osteotomy closure.

Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2018;24(3):65-73
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Bortulev P.I., Vissarionov S.V., Baskov V.E., Ovechkina A.V., Barsukov D.B., Pozdnikin I.Y.


Aim of the study — to identify clinical and roentgenological criteria of the sagittal profile status of spine-pelvis segment in children with dysplastic femur subluxation.

Material and Methods. The present study included 40 female patients (50 hip joints) aged from 12 to 17 years (14.7±1.58) with unilateral and bilateral hip joint instability due to dysplasia. Children were divided into two groups – the first group included 30 patients (30 hip joints) with unilateral femur subluxation, the second group – 10 patients (20 hip joints) with bilateral femur subluxation. All patients underwent a standard orthopaedic clinical examination using a specialized scale to objectify complaints. All patients underwent X-ray examination of hip joints in AP and Lauenstein projections, CT scanning as well as lateral panoramic roentgenography of C1-S1 including femoral bones in standing position of the patient.

Results. The authors observed a strong positive correlation between sacrum inclination and lumbar lordosis curvature, antetorsion angle of proximal femur and sacrum inclination angle, severity of pain syndrome during impingement test and sacrum tilt: Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.71, 0.81 and 0.88 respectively. The authors reported in all patients a thoracic normokyphosis and lumbar hyperlordosis with excessive pelvis anteversion. Global sagittal disbalance was observed in all patients.

Conclusion. Apart from typical anatomical and roentgenological changes in pelvic and femoral componentsof the joint the children with dysplastic femur subluxation are characterized by excessive pelvic anteversion. Criteria of above parameters are identical and do not depend on the number of joints involved into the pathological process. Cranial dislocation of femoral head results to abnormalities of sagittal spine-pelvis ratios. Pathological process in hip joints and abnormality of spine-pelvis ratios results in negative changes of sagittal spine profile in the form of hyperlordosis, of physiological criteria of thoracic kyphosis and of the global sagittal disbalance. All of the above leads to overload of spinal motion segments and development of spine degenerative and dystrophic changes at early age.

Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2018;24(3):74-82
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Mushkin A.Y., Naumov D.G., Umenushkina E.Y.


Purpose of the study — to study impact of hemi-vertebrae extirpation technique in mono-segmental reconstruction on the surgical trauma.

Material and Methods. 34 patients underwent 36 mono-segmental extirpations of hemi-vertebrae followed by a posterior fixation during a single center four years cohort study. Mean age of children at the moment of procedure was 4 years and 3 months (min — 1 year, max — 14 years). The authors studied impact of pathology level, surgical approach, type of bony structures removal technique and age of the patients on the time of procedure and volume of blood loss.

 Results. Extirpation of thoracic hemi-vertebrae was characterized by a lengthier procedure and greater blood loss in contrast to lumbar hemi-vertebrae. Patients were divided into three groups depending on extirpation technique: 1)  extirpation from two approaches using a high-speed burr; 2) from a single dorsal approach using the same extirpation technique; 3) from dorsal approach using ultrasonic bone scalpel. Surgery time was 208±72 min in the first group, 187±54 min in the second group, and 170±30 min in the third group; blood loss volume was 181±39, 181±53, 132±73 ml respectively in the groups, or 11.5±4.3%, 9.4±2.8% and 9.6±5.2% of total blood volume, respectively.

Conclusion. Surgical approach and hemi-vertebrae extirpation technique in children have a varying impact on surgery time and intraoperative blood loss, and the least values were reported for posterior approach using ultrasonic bone scalpel.

Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2018;24(3):83-90
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Korolev A.V., Magnitskaya N.E., Ryazantsev M.S., Sinitskiy M.A., Kadantsev P.M., Afanas’yev A.P., Il’in D.O.


Purpose of the study — to evaluate surgical treatment outcomes of the patients with chronical patella instability who underwent double bundle transpatellar reconstruction of medial patella-femoral ligament (MPFL) by a semitendinous tendon autograft.

 Material and methods. 26 patients with minimal 12 months follow up were included into the study. In all cases semitendinous tendon autograft was inserted through a vertical tunnel in the patella, formed in a loop, and fixed in femoral tunnel by a biodegradable screw. Preoperative MRIs were used to evaluate trochlear dysplasia type by D. Dejour classification, tibial tubercle to trochlear groove distance (TT-TG) and Insall-Salvati ratio. Postoperative x-rays were used to measure femoral tunnel angle (FTA), postoperative MRIs — to measure diameter of patella tunnel (d_Pat), distance from tunnel to medial border of patella (MPM) and diameter of tunnel in medial femoral condyle (d_Fem). Functional outcomes were evaluated by Kujala Score, Lysholm and IKDC, also the authors assessed the level of sports activity prior to and after the surgery.

 Results. Age median of the patients at the moment of procedure was 22 years. MRI data prior to surgery reported that the majority of patients suffered from B type of trochlear dysplasia, median TT-TG distance was 14.6 mm, median Insall-Salvati ratio was 1.1 mm. Postoperative x-rays and MRIs demonstrated median FTA of 18°, d_Pat median — 5.4 mm, MPM median — 7.0 mm, d_Fem median — 8.2 mm, no implant migrations were observed. Subjective assessment scores demonstrated excellent outcomes: Kujala Score — 96, IKDC — 87.4, Lysholm — 91. No secondary dislocations during follow up were reported, 48% of patients returned to sports on the pre-surgery or higher level, 52% of patients returned to sports with decreased activity.

 Conclusion. Transpatellar reconstruction of MPFL by semitendinous tendon autograft proved to be the efficient treatment method of chronical patella instability.

Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2018;24(3):91-102
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Kalensky V.O., Ivanov P.A., Sharifullin F.A., Zabavskaya O.A.


Until now the problem of selecting a conservative or operative treatment option for calcaneal fractures and moreover the choice of the most optimal surgical procedure for such lesions have not been solved. Thus, comparative studies in this area is one of the most important tasks of the modern traumatology.

 Purpose of the studyto compare treatment outcomes, pattern and complications rate following the use of three treatment options for calcaneal fractures.

 Material and Methods. The authors analyzed treatment outcomes of 95 patients from 2013 till 2016. Mean age of patients was 39.04±12.51 years. Patients were divided into three groups: group 1 consisted of 41 patients with 54 fractures who underwent functional conservative treatment; group 2 consisted of 18 patients with 22 fractures treated by open reduction and plate fixation; group 3 consisted of 36 patients with 40 fractures treated by minimally invasive reduction and intramedullary fixation. Groups did not differ in respect of risk factors rate and rate of surgical risks under ABCDEF scale. Outcomes were evaluated basing on roentgenological criteria of reduction, complications rate and the functional scales FFI (Foot Function Index) and LEFS (Lower Extremity Functional Score).

 Results. Mean follow up was 20.8±9.0 months. Catamnesis was controlled in 68 out of 95 patients (71.6%). Variances were observed for all criteria of reduction quality between group 1 (no reduction) and groups 2 and 3. Groups 2 and 3 demonstrated similar criteria in respect of reduction quality of posterior articular surface, restoration of height and axis of calcaneus (р>0.05). FFI and LEFS scores in group 1 were inferior to results in groups 2 and 3 (р<0.05) at 6 and 12 months follow up. At 24 months follow up the variances persisted for mean values but were not statistically significant (р>0.05). No differences between groups 2 and 3 were observed during all follow up terms (р>0.05). Sum rate of complications in wound healing in group 2 was significantly higher than in groups 1 and 3 (р = 0.033).

 Conclusion. Any of the described options of surgical treatment resulted in an earlier functional restoration after calcaneal fractures as compared to conservative treatment. Reduction quality and late functional outcomes did not vary between the study groups, however, the rate of complications for wound healing in the group with open internal fixation was higher.

Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2018;24(3):103-112
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Case Reports


Kulyaba T.A., Kornilov N.N., Croitoru I.I., Solomin L.N., Bovkis G.Y., Korchagin K.L., Ivanov P.P.


The authors present a clinical case of a female patient with seropositive rheumatoid polyarthritis mainly affecting the knee joints. The patient underwent a primary total bilateral knee replacement. Surgical site infection required multiple revisions including replacement of extensive bone defects of AORI type 3 by structural femur and tibia allografts as well as allografting of extensor mechanism. Repeated attempts to eliminate infection, to gain support ability of extremities and joints motion were not successful. Long-term staged surgical treatment resulted in removal of prostheses and bilateral knee arthrodesis to restore support function of the extremities.

Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2018;24(3):113-124
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Pavlov V.V., Pronskikh A.A., Mamyladze T.Z., Bazlov V.A., Efimenko M.V., Zhilenko V.Y., Tsegelnikov M.M.


Purpose of the study — to illustrate on a particular clinical case an option of treatment for patients with severe pelvic defects by a staged surgery: vascularized bone grafting and revision arthroplasty using custom made implant produced by laser sintering based on layered 3D-visualisation.

 Material and Methods. Female, 61 years old, was admitted to clinic in 2016 with aseptic loosening of acetabular component and polyethylene insert wear following arthroplasty with total cementless prosthesis. Revision arthroplasty was made with hemispherical augment and anti-protrusion ring. On day 7th after the surgery a dislocation of prosthesis head, pubic bone fracture, migration of acetabular component and bone defect with pelvic discontinuity occurred due to trauma. To restore continuity of the pelvic ring and supportability of the lower limb the authors performed a staged multisession procedure: removal of prosthesis, free vascularized bone grafting by costal vascular pedicle graft and plating fixation of the pelvis. 6 months after the first stage a custom made prosthesis was implanted. Such prosthesis was produced based on a 3D pelvis reconstruction model by layered visualization and with evaluation of bone density on the Hounsfield scale and was printed on 3D-printer by laser sintering from LPW-TI64-GD23-TYPE5 titanium.

 Results. The authors did not observe any septic complications, dislocations and components migration in the early postoperative period. Function was assessed by Harris Hip Score. Scores prior to arthroplasty by a custom made implant was 12 points, one month postoperatively — 30 points, three months postoperatively — 51 points, six months postoperatively — 74 points. Life quality scores by SF-36 were reported as follows: prior to surgery РН — 21.32; МН — 40.92; one month postoperatively РН — 40.66; МН — 55.80; three months postoperatively РН — 52.14; МН — 57.81; six months postoperatively РН — 62.46; МН — 72.08.

 Conclusion. Vascularized bone autoplasty allows to restore pelvic continuity, and the use of custom made implants — to restore supportability of the lower limb and hip function in case of an extensive pelvic defect.

Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2018;24(3):125-134
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Rodomanova L.A., Orlova I.V.


 The sellar joint plays a key role in wrist function ensuring thumb contraposition when gripping. Lesions of sellar joint are accompanied by pain syndrome and deformity of the first metacarpal which substantially affects life quality of the patients. The authors carried the analysis of literature dedicated to surgical treatment of degenerative lesions of trapeziometacarpal joint. The present review describes features of joint anatomy and biomechanics, reports the key factors contributing to disease progression, covers various approaches and criteria for selection of surgical options for reconstruction of sellar joint.


Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2018;24(3):135-144
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Petrushin A.L., Pryaluchina A.V.


Purpose of the study — to generalize and arrange the data published in scientific literature and to present current views on epidemiology, diagnostics and treatment options for pubic symphysis diastasis during pregnancy and delivery.

 Semeiotic separation wider than 10 mm is considered pubic symphysis diastasis during pregnancy and delivery. Diastasis above 14-25 mm might be associated with ruptures of sacroiliac joints. Frequency of such pathology is reported in the range from 0,03 to 2,8%. Key risk factors of this pathology include multiparity and repeated labor. Symptoms of pubic separation include pain and signs of pelvic instability manifesting immediately after delivery or within a short period of time after the delivery. AP roentgenography is the principal diagnostics method however lately ultrasound exam is done more frequently. Conservative option prevails in treatment of pubic symphysis diastasis. Surgical procedures are recommended in case of separation above 30-50 mm, ruptures of sacroiliac joints, open lesions, failed conservative treatment and urological dysfunction. In such cases preferred option is the internal fixation by plate and screws. Some authors use external fixation. Late-term outcomes of both methods do not demonstrate significant differences.

 Pain regress after the surgery is observed within 3 weeks to 6 months postoperatively, walking with partial load is restored in 5-14 days, full load on the lower limbs is possible 6 months postoperatively. Indications for removal of implants after internal fixation are not clearly defined. Following surgical treatment of pubic symphysis diastasis the majority of authors incline to subsequent operative delivery.

Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2018;24(3):145-156
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Akhtiamov I.F., Pankov I.O.



Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2018;24(3):157-162
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