Vol 26, No 4 (2020)

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Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(4):7
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Diagnosis of Late Periprosthetic Joint Infection. Which Diagnostic Algorithm to Choose?

Kazantsev D.I., Bozhkova S.A., Zolovkina A.G., Peleganchuk V.A., Batrak Y.M.


Background. Nowadays, according to the foreign and native registers data, the number of patients with periprosthetic infection (PJI) tends to increase. The early PJI diagnostics allows to provide timely effective treatment. Several widely used PJI diagnostic algorithms PJI exist. The objective of the study is comparative analysis of diagnostic value, accuracy and specificity of contemporary diagnostic algorithms. Materials and methods. A post-hoc analysis of 242 patients undergoing revision arthroplasty in 2018, held at FSFI FCTOE, was carried out. According to the study design, 127 patients were included in this study. PJI was diagnosed according to three known algorithms: ICM (International Consensus Meeting 2018), WAIOT (The World Association against Infection in Orthopedics and Trauma), EBJIS (The European Bone and Joint Infection Society 2018). Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and total accuracy of each algorithm was carried out. The evaluation of ICM diagnostic algorithm was made with 2 variants: “not convincing = no infection”, “not convincing = infection”. The presence of infection was confirmed by bacteriological examination of synovial fluid aspirate, intraoperative biopsy of materials and sonification of explanted components. Results. The highest value of common accuracy was achieved in ICM 2018 algorithm — “not convincing = infection” was 91.3%, with sensibility and specificity — 89.3% and 93.0% respectively. The best specificity was shown by the algorithms WAIOT and ICM (“not convincing = no infection) – 95.8%, with sensibility and common accuracy — 80.4% and 89.0% respectively. The sensibility and specificity of EBJIS algorithm was 87.5% and 84.5%, respectively, the common accuracy — 85.8%. Conclusion. All included in investigation diagnostic algorithms showed high specificity values in diagnostics of hip and knee PJI without significant differences. Patients with subclinical PJI and low virulent pathogens have the biggest difficulties in PJI diagnostics. It seems that the selection of analyzed algorithms doesn’t play an important role, however PJI diagnostics requires complex approach with the use of different clinical and laboratory values.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(4):9-20
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Periprosthetic Joint Infection after Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty With and Without Sinus Tract: Treatment Outcomes

Preobrazhensky P.M., Bozhkova S.A., Panteleev A.N., Tikhilov R.M., Kazemirsky A.V.


Background. Sinus tract appears up to 20% of patients with periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after primary total joint arthroplasty (TJA). The adverse effect of different patient related risk factors is well known, but the role of the sinus tract in PJI recurrence wasn’t properly investigated. The purpose of the study was to analyze the influence of a sinus tract on the effectiveness of two-stage reimplantation in PJI. Material and Methods. In order to reduce the influence of known risk factors on effectiveness of infection eradication several including criteria were introduced: patients with PJI after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA), without surgeries before TKA and after infection manifestation and without attempts of antibiotic suppression. Finally, 119 of 475 patients with PJI after primary TKA, treated with two-stage protocol, were retrospectively analyzed: 33 patients with presence of the sinus tract, 86 — without sinus tract. Pathogen type, comorbidities, PJI type, bone defects, duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss and the effectiveness of twostage reimplantation were analyzed. Results. Pathogen structure in analyzed groups was comparable. Staphylococci were the leading cause of PJI in compared groups: 64.4% of patients without sinus tract and 59.1% of patients with sinus tract. Wherein S. aureus was more frequently isolated in case of active sinus tract while S. epidermidis played the leading role in compared group. Polymicrobial PJI was more likely to develop in patients with sinus tract (p = 0.09). Massive bone defects of femur and tibia (type 3 according AORI classification) were identified only in patients with sinus tract PJI, as well as significantly longer duration of the spacer implantation and higher intraoperative blood loss at this stage (p<0.05). Infection eradication after spacer implantation stage was achieved in 98.8% (n = 79) of patients without sinus tract while only 81% (n = 17) of patients with sinus tract PJI successfully passed this stage of surgical treatment (p<0.05), effectiveness of revision knee arthroplasty was 98.7% (n = 78) and 76.5% (n = 13) respectively (p<0.05). Finally, complex effectiveness of twostage reimplantation in patients with sinus tract was significantly lower (61.9%) than in patients of compared group (97.5%), p<0.05. Conclusion. Presence of the sinus tract in patients with PJI after primary TKA adversely effects on the effectiveness of two-stage reimplantation, this fact could be explained by aggressive development of infection, caused by more virulent pathogens and higher frequency of polymicrobial cases among this cohort of patients. The established patterns require further research to develop tactics for managing this category of patients in order to increase the effectiveness of two-stage reimplantation.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(4):21-31
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Alternative Techniques of Ligament Reconstruction in Patients with Combined Cruciate and Postero-lateral Corner Injuries of the Knee

Khominets V.V., Kudyashev A.L., Bazarov I.S., Grankin A.S., Rikun O.V., Rezvantsev M.V., Fedorov R.A.


Background. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of the patients with multiligament knee injuries. A significant proportion of unsatisfactory outcomes of such injuries treatment is associated with this injury features and the objective difficulties of its surgical correction. This determines the need for searching the optimal methods of diagnosis and treatment of such an injury. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of surgical treatment of the patients with multiligament knee injury, including the injury of the ligament-tendon complex of the knee posterolateral angle with two different techniques. Materials and Methods. The study included 51 patients with multiligament knee injury undergone the surgical treatment from 2007 to 2019. The average age of the patients was 32.1±9.2 years. The patients were divided into two groups. The patients of the main group (24 patients) underwent reconstruction of the cruciate ligaments and the main structures of the posterolateral angle: the fibular collateral ligament, the popliteofibular ligament, and the popliteus tendon. The patients of the comparison group (27 patients) underwent the reconstruction of the cruciate ligaments supplemented with isolated fibular collateral ligament grafting. The results obtained were evaluated clinically using the Lysholm scale (1982), by determining the subjective assessment of treatment outcomes, and by functional X-ray and MRI. The results of the treatment were studied in all injures: in the main group in 9 months, in the comparison group on average in 16 months after the surgery (from 9 to 43 months). Results. The use of the developed diagnostic and surgical methods made it possible to improve the clinical and functional results by the Lysholm scale: the main group 82 [70; 86] points vs the control group 68 [64; 76] points (p = 0.003). The II degree residual lateral instability was observed in 2 patients of the main group and in 7 patients of the control. 19 (79.2%) patients in the main group and 18 (66.7%) in the control were satisfied with treatment outcomes according to the scale of subjective assessment. There were no patients who rated the result of their treatment as “good” in the both groups. Conclusion. The practical employment of the proposed modification of the fibular collateral ligament grafting by the LaPrade in the patients with multiligament knee injury makes it possible the statistically significant improvement of the treatment functional results after the reconstructive surgery in the medium term (9 months) compared with the patients undergone isolated fibular collateral ligament grafting. The unsatisfactory results of the treatment caused by the severity and morphological features of the injuries. They require further study, as well as the improvement of the surgical techniques.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(4):32-44
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Extirpation of the Thoracic and Lumbar Hemivertebrae from the Dorsal Access Using the Ultrasonic Bone Scalpel in Children: The Result of a Prospective Multicenter Study

Naumov D.G., Mushkin A.Y., Filatov E.Y., Ryabykh S.O., Chelpachenko O.B.


Background. The surgical treatment of congenital spinal deformity caused by hemivertebra is associated with high rate of complications. A research of a new surgery technique for operation time and blood loss decrease could potentially improve outcomes. The purpose — to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonic bone scalpel in surgical treatment of pediatric congenital spinal deformities caused by monosegmental hemivertebra. Patients and Methods. Level of Evidence III. The study based on the data of 55 consecutively operated pediatric patients who underwent 59 posterior hemivertebra resection provided by ultrasonic bone scalpel from January 2015 to December 2019. The average age was 4 years and 4 months. 36 hemivertebra were located in thoracic spine and 23 were located in lumbar spine. Total duration of surgery, estimated blood loss (ml and % of circulated blood volume, CBV), complications rate and deformity correction were noted. The influence of posterior instrumentation length and patients age at time of surgery on evaluation parameters was analyzed. 5-year (2015–2019) systematic literature review was performed for compare with obtain results. Results. Total operation time was 131 min ± 33 min for thoracic spine and 165 min ± 50 min for lumbar spine (p = 0,005). Estimated blood loss was 105 ml ± 74 ml (Me 80 ml) for thoracic resection and 123 ml ± 59 ml (Me 120 ml) — for lumbar (p = 0,178). The length of posterior instrumentation were not influence on operation time and total blood loss (p = 0,957; p = 0,967), patients age at time of surgery were not influence on operation time (p = 0,458), but correlate with total blood loss (p = 0,023). Intraoperative complications was not observed. Four cases of transpedicular screw malposition without neurological deficit were noted (type C acc. Gertzbein-Robbins). Conclusions. Posterior hemivertebra resection with ultrasonic bone scalpel is safe and effective procedure provides decrease of operation time and estimated blood loss.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(4):45-55
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Compare of Anterior Approaches in Acetabular Fractures Treated by the Standard Ilioinguinal Versus the Stoppa/Iliac Approaches

Zadneprovskiy N.N., Ivanov P.A., Sautenko A.A., Valieva R.I., Nevedrov A.V.


Background. In acetabular fractures, the correct choice of the surgical approach is mandatory to achieve accurate reduction and to avoid complications. Anterior approaches include the ilioinguinal, the Stoppa, the iliofemoral and the pararectal exposures. The ilioinguinal and the Stoppa approaches are the most ones nowadays. The purpose of the study was to compare the efficacy of modified Stoppa and ilioinguinal approach in the management of acetabular fractures in terms of quality of reduction achieved, complication rates, functional outcomes, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, view angle of the surgical wound, the applicability of the forceps. Materials and Methods. The study enrolled 53 adult patients. We evaluated 53 cases of treatment of patients underwent acetabular fractures osteosynthesis. The patients were divided into two groups. We used the Letournel approach in group 1 (n = 27), the Stoppa/iliac approach — in group 2 (n = 26). The group 2 was split into two subgroups: in subgroup 2A, osteotomy of the anterior superior spine was performed (n = 13), in subgroup 2B, we did not perform it (n = 13). The following parameters were compared: the quality of reposition of fragments, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, damage to neural structures, viewing angle, and ease of use of pelvic instruments for reduction. The functional outcome was assessed by the Majeed scale. Results. Comparison of the two approaches showed that the indices of reduction of fragments, total blood loss and operation time did not differ significantly and were not statistically significant (p>0.05). However, there were more neurological complications in group 1, but they did not affect the treatment outcome. The angle of the sector of view during the operation with osteotomy of the anterior superior spine of the pelvic wing is about 90°, which contributes to a more efficient use of repositioning instruments. The functional results of treatment were the same in both groups in 12 months after surgery. Conclusion. The Letournel and the Stoppa/iliac approach are equivalent in terms of the degree of reduction, operation time and blood loss during the operation. Application the Stoppa/iliac approach helps to avoid iatrogenic meralgia paresthetica unlike Letournel approach. The Stoppa/iliac approach and osteotomy of the anterior superior spine provides better visualization and provides a greater degree of freedom for the surgeon during manipulation tools for reposition.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(4):56-67
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Surgical Treatment of Humerus Fracture-Dislocations: Medium-Term Results

Egiazaryan K.A., Ratyev A.P., Ershov D.S., Kuruch E.A., Kuznetsov V.N., Ovcharenko N.V.


Background. Fracture-dislocation of the proximal humerus is a severe injury that equally affects both young and old people. Such injuries are often accompanied by the high risk of neurocirculatory and other complications, which defines their great medical and social importance. The purposes of this study were: 1) to compare the mid-term results of the surgical treatment of the patients with dislocation-fractures of the proximal humerus when they were managed according to the standard algorithm or the new one developed by the authors of this study; 2) to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in relation to the patients with neurological complications in order to elaborate a universal approach to the optimal treatment tactics. Patients and Methods. The treatment results of 73 patients with proximal humerus fracture-dislocation undergone the surgery from 2012 to 2018. The patients were divided into 2 groups, which were managed according to the traditional (control group) or the new algorithms (main group), differing in the time of the surgery, a set of diagnostic methods, and an approach to the prevention and treatment of complications. The patients’ examination included taking patients’ anamnesis, their physical examination, X-rays and multispiral computed tomography of the injured shoulder, electromyoneurography, ultrasound of the upper limb blood vessels, patients’ questioning. Results. A year after the surgery, a statistically significant difference in the functional results was revealed in the patients of the main and control groups by the Constant Shoulder Score (p = 0.0063). In the control group, there was a statistically significant difference of the functional results by Constant Shoulder Score between the patients with and without neurological complications (p = 0.003). There was no statistically significant difference among such patients in the main group (p = 0.387). Conclusion. The main group patients, including those with neurological complications, achieved higher functional results in comparison with the control group. Thus, the authors’ treatment algorithm showed its effectiveness. The surgery within 6 hours from the moment of admission of the patients with humerus fracture-dislocation, as well as the earliest possible diagnosis of neurological injury and treatment of complications significantly improved the prognosis and outcome the main group patients.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(4):68-79
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Gender Differences of the ACL Insertion Sites

Malanin D.A., Volodin I.V., Suchilin I.A., Demeshchenko M.V.


Background. The modern principles of reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and well-known surgical techniques do not take into account the peculiarities of the anatomical structure of the female knee. This happens due to insufficient substantiation that these peculiarities could influence the results of the treatment. The purpose of this study was to obtain new data on the structure of the areas of the ACL attachment, taking into consideration patient’s gender and the surgical anatomy. Material and Methods. 40 unpaired “fresh” anatomical preparations of the human female and male knees were studied. After preparation of the knee joints, the morphometry of the distal femoral epiphysis and the proximal tibial epiphysis was carried out by a digital sliding caliper according to 16 parameters. The shape, size, area, and the distance of the ACL attachment center from individual bone structures were assessed. The obtained data were correlated with the gender type of the knee structure. Results. The distal femoral epiphysis of the “female” type knee joint compared with the “male” type revealed the significant differences (p<0.05) in the following parameters: the width of the condyles at the level of the transepicondylar line, the width of the intercondylar fossa, the length and height of the lateral condyle, and the ratio of the condyles width at the level of the transepicondylar line to the height of the lateral condyle. The tibial proximal epiphysis showed the gender differences in the articular surface frontal and sagittal dimensions, the width of the intercondylar eminence and the posterior slope of the tibial epiphysis articular surface. These features determined the different proportions of the female knee structure. The area of the anterior cruciate ligament femoral attachment and its center in the “female” type of structure were located 3 mm distal and 1.5 mm posteriorly (anteriorly and downwardly in arthroscopic imaging). The area of the tibial attachment of the same ligament and its center were localized 2 mm anteriorly in comparison with the “male” type structure. Conclusion. The discovered anatomical differences made it possible to distinguish the “female” and “male” types of the knee structure. The topography of the anterior cruciate ligament attachment areas is gender specific. This should be taken into account in the anatomical reconstruction of the ligament.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(4):80-92
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Morphological Changes in the Tibial Nerve During the Treatment of Large Tibia Defects Using Ilizarov Apparatus Combining with the Masquelet Technique: Experimental Study

Varsegova T.N., Diuriagina O.V., Emanov A.A., Mokhovikov D.S., Borzunov D.Y.


Background. The use of Masquelet technology in combination with non-free osteoplasty according to Ilizarov in order to compensate large defects of the lower leg bones provides proper bone union and recurrence-free course of the disease, but the problem of patient rehabilitation remains relevant. The course and duration of the recovery period depend on the morphofunctional state of the tibial nerves. The purpose of this study was to determine morphological changes in the tibia nerve of dogs during the experimental treatment of large tibial defects using Ilizarov apparatus combining with the Masquelet technique. Materials and Methods. A defect of the upper third of the tibia in the form of false joint was created in 10 mongrel dogs. Then this defect was replaced with 25 mm diastasis, into which a cement spacer was placed. After 30 days, the latter was removed. At the level of the lower third, transverse osteotomy was performed, as well as distraction of 1 mm rate for 4 times per day, until complete contact of the fragments in the defect zone. The tibial nerves were studied within the periods of 60 days of fixation (F60) and 30 days after the fixator removal (FR30). Results. There were no mechanical damages of the nerves. During the experiment a part of epineural veins and arteries had obliterated lumens, two-fold decrease in the numerical density of endoneural arterioles, venules and capillaries was observed in FR30 — 97.5±2.5 in 1 mm2 (normally — 182.0±22.0), that evidenced of microcirculatory disorders progressing towards the end of the experiment. Patterns of Wallerian degeneration were found along with typical damages to fibers during distraction osteosynthesis demyelination and axonal degeneration. In F60 the proportion of modified fibers was 7.7±1.5%, which was 4.8 times higher (р = 0.52×10-5) above normal, the numerical densities and dimensional characteristics of fibers decreased. At the end of the experiment, the proportion of modified conductors 2.3-fold exceeded the norm (p = 0.33×10-4) — 3.7±0.4%, the numerical density of fibers remained 10.2% below the norm (p = 0.0362), making up 17436±865, but the average axon diameter and thickness of myelin sheaths were restored. Conclusion. Microcirculatory dysfunction, axonal atrophy, demyelination, Wallerian degeneration of a part of myelin nerve fibers and a decrease in their number revealed in the tibial nerves during the treatment of large tibia defects using the Masquelet technique combining with Ilizarov non-free bone grafting indicated the need for the use of adequate neurometabolic pharmacotherapy and effective rehabilitation.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(4):93-101
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Magnetic Resonance Imaging Identification of Rotator Cuff Pathology: Inter-rater Realibilty

Logvinov A.N., Makarieva O.V., Ilʼin D.O., Kadantsev P.M., Zaripov A.R., Frolov A.V., Magnitskaya N.E., Ryazantsev M.S., Burtsev M.E., Korolev A.V.


Background. The shoulder MRI is one of the main methods for the rotator cuff injuries diagnostics and determination of the further treatment tactics. The agreement in the MRI data interpretation among specialists regarding different types of shoulder ruptures is an integral part of diagnostic test validity evaluation. The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement in the MRI data interpretation in the patients with shoulder rotator cuff pathology among trauma surgeons, as well as between trauma surgeons and a radiologist. Materials and Methods. The study was a retrospective analysis of the MRI data and surgical reports regarding 57 patients with various shoulder pathologies undergone the shoulder MRI and arthroscopic shoulder revisions in the period from 2017 to 2019. There were 38 (67%) men and 19 (33%) women among the patients. The average age of the patients was 52.7±13.6 years. The sensitivity and specificity, as well as the shoulder MRI inter-rater reliability were assessed in the course of the study. Results. The rotator cuff pathology was revealed in 52 patients: supraspinatus tendon injury in 98% of cases, supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon — in 26%, isolated subscapularis tendon injury — in 2%, supraspinatus and subscapularis tendon — in 39%. The maximal concordance in the MRI data interpretation was achieved in the patients with full-thickness supraspinatus tendon rupture, as well as with the supraspinatus tendon calcifications. However, significant disagreement was found between orthopedists with different work experience in determination of the presence and type of infraspinatus and subscapularis tendons pathology and supraspinatus tendon incomplete ruptures and tendinitis. Conclusion. The high agreement in the MRI data interpretation in determining the pathology of the shoulder rotator cuff among trauma surgeons, as well as between trauma surgeons and radiologists, was observed only regarding the supraspinatus tendon, calcifying tendonitis and full-thickness injury. The diagnosis of tendinitis and incomplete tendon rupture remains difficult. Their interpretation results vary greatly. It is also worth noting the heterogeneity of the results of diagnostics of the infraspinatus and subscapularis tendon pathology.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(4):102-111
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Microscopic Examination of Foot Joints Components in Charcot Arthropathy Complicated by Osteomyelitis

Stupina T.A., Migalkin N.S., Shchudlo M.M., Sudnitsyn A.S., Mezentsev I.N.


Background. Charcot arthropathy is a serious medical and social problem. Histological studies of foot joints components in Charcot arthropathy complicated by osteomyelitis are few. The purpose of this study was to assess structural changes in the articular cartilage and subchondral bone of the foot joints in Charcot arthropathy complicated by osteomyelitis. Materials and Methods. The bone-cartilage fragments of the ankle, subtalar and metatarsophalangeal joints with the surrounding soft tissues of 20 patients with Charcot arthropathy complicated by chronic osteomyelitis were examined. Part of the material was fixed in neutral formalin. All samples were subjected to standard histological processing. Paraffin sections were stained by Masson’s tricolor method, hematoxylin and eosin. Part of the material was embedded in epoxy resins. Then semi-thin sections were stained with methylene blue and basic fuchsin. Histological preparations were studied by digitizing images under the AxioScope A1 microscope (Carl Zeiss MicroImaging GmbH, Germany).The phase of chronic osteomyelitis inflammation was assessed semi-quantitatively using the histopathological scale by A. Tiemann et al. (2014). Results. In 80% of the patients, the inflammatory phase of chronic osteomyelitis was characterized as active and subacute. In all cases, the areas with full-layer of articular cartilage unweaving, up to the subchondral zone, with cartilaginous tissue fragments rejection into the joint cavity were revealed. Cytoarchitectonics was disrupted. The main part of chondrocytes was in a state of destruction. The articular surface was covered with pannus. There were no basophilic line and the zone of calcified cartilage. The hyaline cartilage was replaced by granulation and/or fibrous tissue. An inflammatory infiltrates was noted in the superficial and deep areas of the cartilage. The impairment of the structure and/or complete absence of the subchondral bone due to the high activity of osteoclasts in the subchondral zone were revealed. An excessive amount of osteoclasts at the border with the articular cartilage was noted, while the signs of reparative bone formation were poorly expressed. Edema and thickening of the vascular walls of the microvasculature were recorded. Conclusion. The microscopic examination of the foot joints in Charcot arthropathy complicated by osteomyelitis revealed structural impairment and/or complete absence of the subchondral bone due to the high activity of osteoclasts in the subchondral zone. Structural changes in the subchondral bone and synovial pannus led to irreversible destruction of articular cartilage and the penetration of infection. These should be taken into account in surgical planning.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(4):112-120
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Translocation of Clostridial Infection as a Complication of Hip Arthroplasty in the Early Postoperative Period: Case Report

Pavlov V.V., Sheraliev T.U., Kirilina S.I., Kretien S.O.


Background. Periprosthetic joint infection in the early postoperative period is a severe infectious complication. Its development, as a rule, is associated with the exogenous surgical wound infection, with the iatrogenic factor at the forefront. Clinical case description. A 73-years-old female with left-sided idiopathic 3rd stage hip osteoarthritis and concomitant pathology with a high degree of comorbidity underwent left hip arthroplasty with a cement-fixed “Endoservice” endoprosthesis. In the early postoperative period (4th to 6th days), against the background of chronic calculous cholecystitis exacerbation and gastrointestinal dysfunction, clostridial septicemia developed as a result of bacterial translocation. The timely diagnosis of the endogenous nature of this infection and the targeted antibiotic therapy prevented the surgical wound and endoprosthesis infection. The Harris score for the function of the left hip at discharge was 78 points. Conclusion. The presented clinical case demonstrates the importance of careful preoperative planning, especially in the patient with identifying somatic pathology of infectious nature, the need to detail the organ-specific microbiota as a mandatory procedure, as well as the prevention of periprosthetic joint infection during orthopedic operations, taking into account the data obtained.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(4):121-129
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Metallic Mercury in the Soft Tissues of the Hand: Case Report

Chulovskaya I.G., Egiazaryan K.A., Lyadova M.V., Kosmynin V.S., Strelka T.V.


Background. The likelihood of foreign bodies presence in the wound exists in almost any injury to the skin. The consequences of their ingress into the body are extremely varied: from the complete absence of symptoms to systemic toxicity, depending both on the nature of the embedded agent and on the way of its penetration. The data of the anamnesis and clinical examination of foreign bodies are not always convincing, and the results of conventional radiography, even with X-ray-positive foreign bodies, are often nonspecific. The parenteral ingression of metallic mercury is rare. In contrast to its access through the respiratory or digestive tract, this route has not been adequately studied. This clinical report is devoted to the clinical case of deliberate self-administration of metallic mercury into the soft tissues of the upper limb. Clinical case description. A 24-year-old patient sought medical help 2 years after the injury and tried to hide its circumstances during taking his anamnesis. Ultrasound played a decisive role in making the diagnosis (foreign body) and revealing its nature (metallic mercury). This indicates the high information content and specificity of ultrasound which exceeded the X-ray capabilities. Despite no signs of general and local toxicity, the presence of mercury in the body is unacceptable and requires the surgical treatment. Our case showed that mercury in soft tissues was limited to granuloma or was fixed inside fibrous tissue. This made it possible to remove it radically. Conclusion. Our observation suggests that ultrasound, in contrast to X-ray, is able to present a specific picture of the existence of metallic mercury in soft tissues. Therefore, it is advisable to include ultrasound in the examination algorithm if any foreign body (especially mercury) is suspected to detect or clarify its nature. If mercury is detected in soft tissues, the radical surgical treatment can be successfully performed, since the reaction of tissues around the mercury material (in the form of granuloma and the confinement of mercury spheres in a conglomerate of fibrous tissue) makes it possible to avoid the spread of mercury along the wound channel.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(4):130-137
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The Algorithm for Territorial Distribution of Public Emergency Rooms in Megapolis (by the Example of Moscow)

Dubrov V.E., Zlobina Y.S., Tishchenko S.A., Shakhmuradian M.A., Pospelov N.A., Shustov E.A.


Background. The lack of a system for evaluating the feasibility of new trauma and orthopedic departments in outpatient clinics under construction creating is one of the main reasons for the imbalance in their territorial location. Therefore, one of the most urgent modern tasks in the megalopolis healthcare organization — is to develop a system for effective regulation of the trauma and orthopedic outpatient departments network construction. The purpose of the study is to improve the effectiveness of outpatient trauma and orthopedic care for megalopolis residents. Materials and Methods. In the research process, theoretical (formalization, synthesis, deduction) and empirical (observation, comparison, modeling, measurement) methods were used. A total of 67 emergency trauma outpatient departments in Moscow were sampled and data on their attendance for April 2019 were collected. Results. Creation of a mathematical model of the network of outpatient primary trauma care and a basic algorithm for estimating the average time from the moment a patient received injuries to the time of primary care in one of the emergency outpatient trauma units of the medical organizations of the capital, which can be used by the executive bodies of the healthcare organization cities in solving administrative and economic problems. Conclusion. The developed specialized mathematical algorithm for assessing the existing effectiveness of the already existing emergency outpatient trauma units network and the distribution of new units allows you to create an “ideal” model for the location of these deparments in a megapolis. In the future, this model can be developed taking into account the development of the transport network, the financing of emergency rooms, etc.

Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(4):138-149
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Arthroscopy for Knee Osteoarthritis in the XXI Century: a Systematic Review of Current High Quality Researches and Guidelines of Professional Societies

Saraev A.V., Kulyaba T.A., Rasulov M.S., Kornilov N.N.


Background. Current evidence based research data lead to reassessment of traditional approaches for treatment of patients with bone and joint disorders especially knee osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of the study was to review randomized clinical trials (RCT) and meta-analyses of RCT as well as recent guidelines of professional societies for application of arthroscopic lavage, debridement and meniscectomy in knee OA. Materials and Methods. Databases PubMed, e-LIBRARY, EMBASE (Ovid), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched for the period from 2000 till 2019. From 138 heats irrelevant and poor quality studies were excluded. In total there were 1614 patients aged 48,9–62,8 in RCT and 20 770 patients aged 42–62,4 in meta-analyses of RCT. Results. Both arthroscopic lavage and debridement do not lead to significant pain relief as well as functional improvement in long term therefore are not recommended. Nonsurgical treatment should be the first line strategy in patients with early and moderate knee OA even with degenerative meniscal tears irrespective of mechanical symptoms like painful locking, catching or sudden giving way. Arthroscopy might be performed only if complex non-surgical treatment including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, structured exercises program and intra-articular injections failed after 3 months in patients without ‘bone on bone’ cartilage erosions and frontal malalignment or if the knee is mechanically locked due to bucked handle type meniscus tear or loose body. Conclusion. Evidence based medicine approach let us to conclude that arthroscopy in knee OA is non-efficient and rarely indicated therefore if proper non-surgical treatment is failed around the knee osteotomies and partial or total arthroplasty should be considered.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(4):150-162
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Management of Chronic Pain Syndrome in Knee Osteoarthritis with Selective Embolization of Popliteal Artery Branches: Review

Kozadaev M.N., Shchanitsyn I.N., Girkalo M.V., Bazhanov S.P., Ulyanov V.Y., Kauts O.A.


Background. Treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in early stages as well as the pain syndrome associated with it usually suggests the combination of medicines and physical therapy means. However, no method has proven its absolute efficiency yet. Transcatheter arterial embolization of popliteal branches is a new minimally invasive treatment that is currently being studied and tested. The objective of our research was the analysis as well as generalization of the outcomes of the pain syndrome in knee OA treatment with the selective embolization of popliteal branches. Materials and Methods. The reviewed articles were retrieved from PubMed database and eLIBRARY digital library considering the criteria like the emboli material, size, and type; possible complications and their effect on the outcome; the patient enrolment criteria for this type of surgical management; the short and long-term outcomes. Results. Transcatheter arterial embolization of popliteal branches is a new minimally invasive method of knee OA treatment. All authors revealed the pathology growth of the vasculature and its complete embolization as a result of the intervention. The review articles present a significant abatement in patients resistant to conventional medical treatment, minimal possible complications, and good long-term outcomes. Conclusion. Since this method of knee OA management is new and understudied, and the number of the published findings does not exceed two hundred it required further thorough investigation and randomized clinical trials.
Traumatology and Orthopedics of Russia. 2020;26(4):163-174
pages 163-174 views


Comment to the Article “Surgical Treatment of Patient with Advanced Kienböck’s Disease: A Case Report”

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