RECONSTRUCTIVE MICROSURGERY IN THE TREATMENT OF SURFACE FORMS OF CALCANEal OSTEOMYELITIS

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Abstract

One of the most common complications associated with the treatment of calcaneus fracturesis, a necrosis of the edges of the surgical wound and as a result – chronic nonhealing ulcers of the heel region and osteomyelitis of the calcaneus. In the structure of skeletal lesions osteomyelitic chronic osteomyelitis of the calcaneus occurs in 3.1–14.8% of cases, and in relation to the bones of the foot – up to 51%. At the same time after open fractures of the total incidence of deep infection from soft tissue even higher than that for the surface (12.2% vs. 9.6%). The traditional approach to the treatment of osteomyelitis of the calcaneus is often accompanied by poor performance with recurrent osteomyelitis process and high
subsequent disability of working age.

Objective: to identify opportunities and assess the effectiveness of the use of reconstructive microsurgery techniques in the treatment of patients with superficial forms of osteomyelitis of the calcaneus, accompanied by the presence of soft tissue defect.

Materials and мethods.The results of treatment of 28 patients with superficial forms of osteomyelitis of the calcaneus, which in the period from 2006 to 2013 in RNIITO them. R.R.Vredena were performed reconstructive plastic surgery using microsurgical techniques. Defects covering tissues were located on the sole (20) and back-side surfaces (8) of the calcaneus. Scope of interventions included the radical surgical treatment of osteomyelitis focus, marginal resection of the affected heel bone and tissue replacement of defect cover flap with axial blood supply.

Results. With the localization of the defect cover tissues to non-reference surface of the heel region was carried out free plastic ray skin-fascial flap (9 cases). When the location of the defect on the plantar surface of the heel region favored medial plantar flap (10 cases). However, the presence of scarring and damage to the medial plantar artery was performed two-step replacement of defect prefabrikovannym flap medial arch of the foot (9 cases). Complications were observed in 7% of cases (2 patients) in 1 patient who had undergone plastic free radial flap in 1 case – after replacing a defect medial plantar flap. In both cases they were associated with impaired blood supply to the flap and ended necrosis of transplanted grafts. In the remaining cases (93%) failed to achieve full engraftment. Long-term results were followed up in 78,5% (n = 22) of patients in the period from 1 to 8 years after the end of treatment. In four cases, the plantar surface of the calcaneus formed edge wound defects, require additional surgical treatment. on the AOFAS scale results averaged 85 points, that, given the severity of the disease, regarded as a good result.

Conclusions. The use of microsurgical techniques for the treatment of patients with superficial forms of osteomyelitis of the calcaneus, including the presence of soft tissue defect, achieves sustained remission osteomyelitic process and restore support ability of the injured limb. Thus the support surface for the replacement of the heel region is expedient to use grafts comprising the plantar surface of the foot skin.

About the authors

E. S. Tsybul’

Vreden Russian Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, ul. Ak. Baykova, 8, St. Petersburg, Russia, 195427

Author for correspondence.
Email: na4med@inbox.ru

postgraduate, hand surgery and microsurgery scientific department, Vreden Russian Research Institute of Traumotology and Orthopedics

Russian Federation

L. A. Rodomanova

Vreden Russian Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, ul. Ak. Baykova, 8, St. Petersburg, Russia, 195427

Pavlov First Saint-Petersburg State Medical University, ul. L. Tolstoy, 6-8, St. Petersburg, Russia, 1970223

Mechnikov North-Western State Medical University, Kirochnaya ul., 41, St. Petersburg, Russia, 191015

Email: fake@neicon.ru

professor, head of hand surgery and microsurgery scientific department, Vreden Russian Research Institute of Traumotology and Orthopedics; professor of department of traumatology and orthopedics of Pavlov First St. Petersburg State Medical University; assistant of department of traumatology and orthopedics of Mechnikov State Medical
University

Russian Federation

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  1. Baranov SV, Usnunts AR, Zaytsev AB. Clinical and anatomical traits of orthopaedic traumatic and maxillofacial osteomyelitis: a systematic review. Kuban Scientific Medical Bulletin. 2021;28(1):103. doi: 10.25207/1608-6228-2021-28-1-103-115

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