Gender Differences of the ACL Insertion Sites

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Abstract

Background. The modern principles of reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and well-known surgical techniques do not take into account the peculiarities of the anatomical structure of the female knee. This happens due to insufficient substantiation that these peculiarities could influence the results of the treatment. The purpose of this study was to obtain new data on the structure of the areas of the ACL attachment, taking into consideration patient’s gender and the surgical anatomy. Material and Methods. 40 unpaired “fresh” anatomical preparations of the human female and male knees were studied. After preparation of the knee joints, the morphometry of the distal femoral epiphysis and the proximal tibial epiphysis was carried out by a digital sliding caliper according to 16 parameters. The shape, size, area, and the distance of the ACL attachment center from individual bone structures were assessed. The obtained data were correlated with the gender type of the knee structure. Results. The distal femoral epiphysis of the “female” type knee joint compared with the “male” type revealed the significant differences (p<0.05) in the following parameters: the width of the condyles at the level of the transepicondylar line, the width of the intercondylar fossa, the length and height of the lateral condyle, and the ratio of the condyles width at the level of the transepicondylar line to the height of the lateral condyle. The tibial proximal epiphysis showed the gender differences in the articular surface frontal and sagittal dimensions, the width of the intercondylar eminence and the posterior slope of the tibial epiphysis articular surface. These features determined the different proportions of the female knee structure. The area of the anterior cruciate ligament femoral attachment and its center in the “female” type of structure were located 3 mm distal and 1.5 mm posteriorly (anteriorly and downwardly in arthroscopic imaging). The area of the tibial attachment of the same ligament and its center were localized 2 mm anteriorly in comparison with the “male” type structure. Conclusion. The discovered anatomical differences made it possible to distinguish the “female” and “male” types of the knee structure. The topography of the anterior cruciate ligament attachment areas is gender specific. This should be taken into account in the anatomical reconstruction of the ligament.

About the authors

D. A. Malanin

Volgograd State Medical University; Volgograd Science Medical Center

Email: malanin67@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7507-0570

Dmitry A. Malanin — Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor, Head of Department for Traumatology, Orthopaedics and Field Surgery, Volgograd State Medical University; Head of Laboratory for Clinical and Experimental Orthopaedics, Volgograd Medical Research Center

Volgograd

Russian Federation

I. V. Volodin

Volgograd State Medical University; Volgograd Science Medical Center

Author for correspondence.
Email: volodin_ili@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8037-1674

Ilya V. Volodin — PhD Student of Department for Traumatology, Orthopaedics and Field Surgery, Volgograd State Medical University; Researcher, Volgograd Medical Research Center

Volgograd

Russian Federation

I. A. Suchilin

Volgograd State Medical University; Volgograd Science Medical Center

Email: omnio@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7375-5365

Ilya A. Suchilin — Cand. Sci. (Med.), Associated Professor, Department of Traumatology, Orthopaedics and Field Surgery, Volgograd State Medical University; Researcher, Volgograd Medical Research Center

Volgograd

Russian Federation

M. V. Demeshchenko

Volgograd State Medical University; Volgograd Science Medical Center

Email: maximus275@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1797-2431

Maxim V. Demeshchenko — Cand. Sci. (Med.), Assistant Professor, Department of Traumatology, Orthopaedics and Field Surgery, Volgograd State Medical University; Researcher, Volgograd Medical Research Center

Volgograd

Russian Federation

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