Classifications of Non-Specific Hematogenous Vertebral Osteomyelitis. Critical Review and Suggestions for Clinical Use

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Abstract

For a long time classification of V.Ya. Fischenko published in 1983 and being solely descriptive was the main classification of vertebral osteomyelitis in the countries of the former ussr. In recent years some versions of tactical classifications appeared in the literature which were dedicated to standardization of tactics and methods of treatment. However, those classifications did not reflect distribution according to affection type, destruction degree, biomechanical instability and presence of neurological deficit and did not embrace all scenarios of disease progress.

Purpose of the study — to compare existing classifications and to offer an adapted Russian language version of tactical classification for hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis.

Materials and Methods. The study included 209 patients with non-specific vertebral osteomyelitis treated in the period from 2006 till 2017. All cases of vertebral osteomyelitis were distributed in accordance with known classifications. The authors conducted the analysis of treatment tactics used in the clinic and by the authors of given classifications. The authors revealed a group of patients which is not classified in known literature.

Results. Full match of treatment tactics with standardized approaches suggested by authors of new classifications was 61,5% (n = 126), partial match (applied treatment tactics does not contradict to suggested) — 20,0% (n = 41), which overall was 81,5% (n = 167). The authors refer to patients who underwent ventral sanation or reconstructive procedures. The majority of patients had the septic form of disease. Four out of 209 patients were not classified while three patients features isolated injury of vertebral processes and one patient — injury of CI-CII.

Conclusion. Modern suggested classifications of hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis are applicable in clinical practice and allow to standardize treatment algorithms. Tactics is determined not only by degree of destruction, involvement of paravertebral tissues, biomechanical instability of affected spine segment and neurological deficit, but by a presence of systemic inflammation response syndrome (SIRS). Considering the above it would be useful to introduce some additional subtypes which would characterize septic process of disease and determine the indications for sanation and reconstructive ventral procedures, which can be supplemented by instrumental fixation after stabilization of the patient.

About the authors

A. Yu. Bazarov

Regional Clinical Hospital No. 2; Tyumen State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: tyumen_trauma@mail.ru

Alexsander Yu. Bazarov — associate professor, Department of Traumatology and orthopedics, TSMU; orthopedic surgeon, Trauma and orthopedic Department, RCH No. 2

Russian Federation

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