Adverse Trends in the Etiology of Orthopedic Infection: Results of 6-Year Monitoring of the Structure and Resistance of Leading Pathogens

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Abstract

Osteomyelitis remains one of the most intractable diseases. The nature of the pathogen and its resistance to antibiotics significantly affect the outcome and cost of treatment.

The aim of the study: to analyze the dynamics of the spectrum and antibiotic resistance of the leading pathogens of orthopedic infection for the period 2012– 2017.

Material and methods. The structure of pathogens isolated from the focus of infection from 2774 patients with periprosthetic infection and chronic osteomyelitis was retrospectively analyzed. Antibiotic resistance of the leading pathogens that occupied more than 4% in the species structure was studied. Comparative analysis of changes in the spectrum of pathogens and antibiotic resistance was carried out for the periods 2012-2013, 2014–2015 and 2016-2017. Epidemiological analysis was performed in the program „microbiological monitoring system” Microbe-2. Statistical processing of the obtained data was carried out using the Z-criterion.

Results. From 2774 patients with orthopedic infection have been isolated 4359 strains, in the structure of which about 73.5% were occupied by S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. faecalis, E. faecium, P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter sp. representatives of the family Enterobacteriacea. In 27% of the cases, microorganisms of other species were identified. Microbial associations were identified in 19.4% of cases. In the structure of the leading Gram(+) pathogens, a significant decrease in the incidence of S. aureus was detected, while the share of S. epidermidis increased significantly. Among the leading Gram(-) microorganisms, a significant increase in the proportion of representatives of the fam. Enterobacteriacea was found, against the background of a decrease in the share of Acinetobacter sp. and P. aeruginosa. The level of resistance of MSSA to the studied antibiotics ranged from 0.1 to 8.8%, for MSSE the spread was from 1.9 to 16.7%. Negative dynamics of growth of resistance of non-fermenting bacteria is established. The strains of Acinetobacter sp. demonstrated greater resistance to tested antibiotics in comparison with P. aeruginosa.

Conclusion. An increase in the role of S. epidermidis and K. pneumoniae in the etiology of orthopedic infection was established. The revealed increase in the resistance of microbial pathogens to most tested and used antibiotics should be taken into account in the appointment of empirical antibiotic therapy. The extremely high frequency of resistance of gram-negative bacteria to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones excludes the possibility of their empirical use, which requires the management of carbapenems in the starting treatment regimens. High resistance to fluoroquinolones limits the ability of oral antibiotic therapy in patients with periprosthetic infection. 

About the authors

S. A. Bozhkova

Vreden Russian Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Svetlana A. Bozhkova — Dr. Sci. (Med.), head of the Research Department of Prevention and Treatment of Wound Infection and Department of Clinical Pharmacology

St. Petersburg

Russian Federation

A. R. Kasimova

Vreden Russian Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics;
Vreden Russian Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics

Author for correspondence.
Email: arkasimova@rniito.ru

Alina R. Kasimova — clinical pharmacologist, Department of clinical Pharmacology, Vreden Russian Research Institute of Traumatology and orthopedics; Assistant, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Evidence-Based Medicine, Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State Medical University

St. Petersburg

Russian Federation

R. M. Tikhilov

Vreden Russian Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics;
Mechnikov North-Western State Medical University

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Rashid M. Tikhilov — Dr. Sci. (Med.), professor, director of Vreden Russian Research Institute of Traumatology and orthopedics; professor of Traumatology and orthopedics Department, Mechnikov North-Western State Medical university

St. Petersburg

Russian Federation

E. M. Polyakova

Vreden Russian Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Ekaterina M. Polyakova — Cand. Sci. (Biol.), senior researcher, Research Department of Prevention and Treatment of Wound Infection echnikov North-Western State Medical university

St. Petersburg

Russian Federation

A. N. Rukina

Vreden Russian Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Anna N. Rukina — bacteriologist, Central Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory; researcher assistant, Scientific Department of Treatment and Prevention of Wound Infection

St. Petersburg

Russian Federation

V. V. Shabanova

Vreden Russian Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Valentina V. Shabanova — bacteriologist, Central Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory; researcher assistant, Scientific Department of Treatment and Prevention of Wound Infection

 

St. Petersburg

Russian Federation

V. N. Liventsov

Vreden Russian Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Vitaly N. Liventsov — orthopedic surgeon, Department of Purulent Surgery of Treatment and Prevention of Wound Infection

St. Petersburg

 

Russian Federation

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