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Introduction. Hallux rigidus is observed in approximately 2.5% of the adult population. Until now neither a unified classification of hallux rigidus appears to exist nor any clear principles to choose the surgical method. The variety of clinical and radiological signs explains the difficulties in establishing a comprehensive classification system and in selection of the criteria for surgical procedure. There are few published reports about hallux rigidus percutaneous surgical treatment. Existing papers are dedicated to a limited number of percutaneous techniques.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous techniques for surgical treatment of the first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis; to specify factors determining the choice of procedure; to develop a grading system of the hallux rigidus severity which will help in selection of surgery.

 Materials and methods. Based on 156 surgeries (107 patients) the author demonstrated the possibilities of percutaneous techniques in the surgical treatment of hallux rigidus of different stages as well as provided a brief description of used surgical techniques.

Results. The mean age of patients was 48.8 years (ranged from 18 to 73). The mean follow-up was 7 months (ranged from 3 to 54). At the specified time the treatment outcomes of 103 patients (150 feet) were analyzed. Mean hospital stay was 0.78 days (ranged from 0 to 1). No infectious or wound-healing problems were observed. Overall, the patients were completely satisfied with the outcomes of 89 surgical treatment, qualified satisfaction was reported with patients in respect of outcomes of 57 surgeries. Four unsatisfactory outcomes were observed. The role of the relatively long first metatarsal in the development of hallux rigidus was confirmed.

 Conclusion. Percutaneous techniques provide successful treatment for all stages of hallux rigidus. The choice of a specific surgical technique may be challenging and requires consideration of a variety of clinical and radiological signs of the pathological process as well as other factors determined by a surgeon only after detailed discussion with the patient. Grading system, proposed in the study, is intended to help the surgeon in selection of individualized surgical approach. It’s recommended to use the proposed classification with the explanations to it provided in the study. 

About the authors

S. Yu. Berezhnoy

Medical center of the Main administration for services to the diplomatic corps at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russian Federation

Author for correspondence.

Sergey Yu. Berezhnoy – Dr. Sci. (Med.) Оrthopedic Surgeon

2-y Botkinskiy proezd, 5, Moscow, 125284

Russian Federation


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