Anatomical and Clinical Rationale for Posterolateral Transfibular Approach for Internal Fixation of the Posterolateral Column of the Tibial Plateau

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Abstract

Purpose of the study — to provide an anatomical rationale and evaluate the clinical application of posterolateral surgical approach with osteotomy of the fibular head for internal fixation of the posterior aspect of the lateral tibial condyle. Material and Methods. Anatomical topography research was performed on 14 lower limbs of 8 fresh cadavers. In the first series of research L-shaped plate was fixed on the posterolateral surface of lateral tibial condyle from the examined approach, then preparation was performed and measuring of distances from various parts of the plates to the common peroneal nerve and anterior tibial artery. In the second series the authors prepared histological topograms by transverse sectioning of plastinated specimens from the knee joint area after implantation of L-shaped buttress plates. Prospective observation clinical study included 20 patients who underwent internal fixation with L-shaped buttress plate from the examined approach for fracture of the posterolateral column of the tibial plateau, type 41В by AO classification. KSS and Lysholm scales were used to evaluate treatment outcomes at days 7–10 and in 1, 3, 6 and 9 months postoperatively. Data of the anatomical and clinical research was compared. Results. Compliance with the technique of posterolateral transfibular surgical approach allows to avoid risk of injury to the common peroneal nerve and anterior tibial arthery which on the specimen were always located safely away from implanted plates. All 20 clinical cases demonstrated good visualization of bone fragments and articular surface of the tibial plateau which ensured reliable reduction and fixation by L-shaped buttress plate. KSS excellent and good outcome scores amounted to 50% and 45%, respectively, while satisfactory score was reported in 5% of cases; Lysholm scale demonstrated 55% of excellent outcomes, 45% of good outcomes, and 5% of satisfactory outcomes. Safety of the approach was verified: no injuries to large blood vessels or iatrogenic neuropathies were reported as well as no large hematomas or infectious complications of the surgical wound in early postoperative period. Conclusion. Results of the present study proved the feasibility and safety of the posterolateral transfibular surgical approach for internal fixation procedures in patients with intraarticular fractures of posterolateral column of the tibial plateau.

About the authors

A. Yu. Kochish

Russian Vreden Scientific Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics,
Kirov Military Medical Academy

Author for correspondence.
Email: auk1959@mail.ru

Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor, Deputy Director for Science and Education; Professor, Department of Operative Surgery and Topographic Anatomy

St. Petersburg

Russian Federation

M. A. Kislitsyn

Semashko City Hospital No. 38

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Orthopedic Surgeon

St. Petersburg

Russian Federation

I. G. Belen’kii

Pavlov First St. Petersburg State Medical University

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Dr. Sci. (Med.), Associate Professor Department of Traumatology and Orthopedics

St.Petersburg

Russian Federation

B. A. Mayorov

Vsevolozhsk Clinical Interdistrict Hospital,
Pavlov First St. Petersburg State Medical University

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Cand. Sci. (Med.), Head of Department of Traumatology and Orthopaedics; Assistant, Department of Traumatology and Orthopedics

St. Petersburg

Russian Federation

D. A. Starchik

Mechnikov North-West State Medical University,
Pavlov First St. Petersburg State Medical University

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Dr. Sci. (Med), Professor, Head of Human Morphology Department; Professor, Department of Clinical Anatomy and Operative Surgery

St. Petersburg

Russian Federation

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